September 2018


Nowadays, no one seems to be saved in the world. Terrorism, an ugly development which has compelled the world leaders as well as the public figures to spend millions of dollars beefing up their security, has become a global threat. Amidst this seemingly tight security and threat, thousands of innocent souls have lost their lives to the annihilation called terrorism.

Statistically, it has been proved that no country of the world is exceptional to terrorist attacks. Pius Odiaka writes on the palpable fear pervading world following the series of bombings in some countries. He declares in the Guardian Newspaper, Friday, July 29th, 2005, (page 24) that “No part of the world has been left without terrorist bloodshed. From Kenya, Algeria, Egypt in Africa to many countries in the middle East and the Gulf; Indonesia, Philippine, Pakistan and India across Asia; Washington and New York in America; Spain and now London in Europe, many innocent souls have been sniffed out of existence.”

The paper will present how terrorism is a threat to Global Peace. It will enumerate the category of acts of terrorism. It will also examine the causes and implications of terrorism in human advancement especially in the area of peace building and keeping. Above all, it will provide recommendations by referring to the United Nations recommendations for a global counter-terrorism strategy. It concludes by affirming that the global peace can only be achieved if the world- the leaders and the followers-condemn terrorism in all forms and ramifications, and act unconditionally and justly in their quest to providing everlasting solutions to peace, as it constitutes one of the most serious threats to global peace and security.


In human history, terrorism is widely recognized as the world most famous enemy of mankind. As history itself will admit that terrorism is annihilation with far-reaching and destructive effects, it is the cruelest of crimes against humanity. Its remains have turned neighbours into enemies and have made our societies and the whole world unsafe for living. Its aims and applications are global and uncompromising. Neither terrorism nor is perpetrators are new. Even though it has been used since the beginning of recorded time, not history itself can keep, with precision, the number of lives and properties lost to terrorism.

No doubt, terrorism with its destructive power has reshaped the world we live in. We now live in the world characterized by rising violence and conflicts. This, in turn, has led to the world of growing mistrust, fear, division and represents a significant new threat to international justice, peace and security. This ugly development thus made Amnesty International to observe in its 2004 Report the lasting effects of the crime on humanity.

This report and others provide a valid point on how terrorism or terrorist acts have made the world unsafe and how it has threatened global peace.

Historical Background of terrorism

It is pertinent to recall that forms of society and governments in the past differ from what they are today, when describing the history of terrorism and the use of terror through time. Not until 1648 (Treaty of Westphalia), there was nothing like modern nation-states. More recent is the state’s monopoly on warfare or interstate-violence. The absence of central authority gave many more players opportunity to participate in the game of warfare. However, this did not make the use of terror a method of affecting a political change. In contrast to the modern era, where only nations go to war, the involvement of players such as religious leaders, mercenaries, mercantile companies, national armies and many more was considered to be lawful and normal.

Terrorist acts or the threat of such action have been in existence for millennia. So, in narrating the history of terrorism, it is important to talk about the various types of terrorism and terrorist individuals and groups. Below is the summary of the history of terrorism.

Ancient World:

Sicarii Zealots

Political scientists see the radical Sicarii offshoot of the Jewish Zealots as one of the earliest forerunners of modern terrorism. Like modern terrorists, they intended their actions to suggest a message to a wider target audience: in this instance, the roman imperial officials and all pro-Roman and collaborationists


The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashsshiyyin or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Isma ili sect of the Shiite Muslims. After a quarrel about the succession of leadership in the ruling Fatimide dynasty in Cairo around the year 1090, the losing Nizariyya faction was driven from Egypt. They established a number of fortified settlements in present day Iran, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon under the charismatic leader Hasan I Sabbah.Persecuted as infidel by the dominant Sunni sect in the Muslim world; they sent dedicated suicide murderers to eliminate prominent Sunni leaders whom they considered “impious usurpers.” The sect was decimated by the invading Mongols, their last stronghold being flattened by Hulegu Khan in the year 1272.Many scholars believe the term Hashshashin, a name given to them by their enemies was derived from the Arabic “hassasin(hashish user),which they are alleged to have ingested prior to their attacks, but this etymology is disputed. The sects referred to themselves as al-da-wa al-jadida, which means the new doctrine, and were known within the organization as Fedayeen.

Seventeenth century

Gunpowder Plot (1605)

On November 5, 1605 a group of conspirators, led by Guy Fawkes, attempted to destroy the English Parliament on the State Opening, by detonating a large quantity of gunpowder secretly placed beneath the building. The design was to kill King James1 and the members of both houses of parliament. In the resulting anarchy, the conspirators planned to implement a coup and restore the Catholic faith to England. However the plan was betrayed and then thwarted.

Eighteenth century

1.Sons of Liberty

The Sons of Liberty were an underground group opposed to British Rule in the colonies, who committed several attacks, most famous among these was the Boston Tea Party. No one was killed or seriously injured by any action that was taken.

2.The Terror (1793-1794)

The Reign of Terror ( September 5 1793- July 28 1794) or simply The Terror ( French: la Terreur) was a period of about eleven months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions led to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by guillotine.

The victims of the Reign of Terror totaled approximately 40,000.Among people who are condemned by the revolutionary tribunals, about 8 percent were aristocrats, 6 percent clergy 14 percent middle class, and 70 percent were workers or peasants accused of hoarding, evading the draft, desertion, rebellion, and other purported crimes.

Nineteenth century


Anarchists was the most prolific terrorists of the 19th century, with the terroristic tendencies of both nationalism and political movements of Communism or fascism still in there infancy. The disjointed attacks of various anarchists groups lead to the assassination of Russian Tsars and American Presidents but had little real political impact.

2.Tsarist Russia

In Russia, by the mid-19 th century, the intelligentsia grew impatient with the slow pace of Tsarist reforms, which had slowed considerably after the attempted assassination of Alexander II of Russia. Radicals then sought instead to transform peasant discontent into open revolution. Anarchists like Mikhail Bakunin maintained that progress was impossible without destruction. With the development of sufficiently powerful, stable, and affordable explosives, the gap closed between the firepower of the state and the means available to dissidents. The main group responsible for the resulting campaign of terror-‘Narodnaya Volya’ (people’s will) (1878-81) – used the word ‘terrorist’ proudly. They believed in the targeted killing of the ‘leaders of oppression’; they were convinced that the developing technologies of the age-symbolized by bombs and bullets- enabled them to strike directly and discriminately.” People’s Will”, possessing only 30 members, attempted several assassination attempts upon Tsa. Culminating in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II on 13 March 1881, killing the Tsar as he was traveling by train.

3. Irish Republican Brotherhood

In 1867, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a revolutionary nationalist group with support from Irish-Americans, carried out attacks in England. These were the first acts of “republican terrorism”, which became a recurrent feature of British history, and these Fenians were the precursor of the Irish Republican Army. The ideology of the group was Irish nationalism.

4. Nationalist terrorism

The Fenians/IRA and the IMRO may be considered the prototype of all ‘nationalist terrorism’, and equally illustrate the (itself controversial) expression that “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter’. At least one of these groups achieve its goal: an independent Ireland came into being. So did an independent Macedonia, but original IMRO probably contributed little to this outcome. Some groups resorted to the use of dynamite, as did Catalan nationalists such as La Reixa and Bandera Negra.

5. John Brown

John Brown was an abolitionist who advocated armed opposition to slavery. He committed several terrorist attacks and was also involved in an illegal smuggling of slaves. His most famous attack was upon the armory at Harpers Ferry, though the local forces would soon recapture the fort and Brown, trying and executing him for treason. His death would make him a martyr to the abolitionist cause, one of the origins of American Civil War, and a hero to the Union forces that fought in it.

6. Ku Klux Klan (1865)

The original Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was created after the end of the American Civil War on December 24, 1865, by six educated middle-class confederate veterans from Pulaski, Tennessee. It soon spread into nearly every southern state of the United States. The Klan has advocated for what is generally perceived as white supremacy, anti-Semitism, racism, anti-Catholicism, homophobia, and nativism. They have often used terrorism, violence and acts of intimidation such as cross burning to oppress African Americans and other groups. The name ‘Ku Klux Klan’ has been used by many different unrelated groups, but they all seem to center on the belief of white supremacy. From its creation to the present day, the number of members and influence has varied greatly. However, there is little doubt that, especially in the southern United States, it has at times wielded much political influence and generated great fear among African Americans and their supporters. At one time KKK controlled the governments of Tennessee, Indiana, Oklahoma and Oregon, in addition to some of the southern U.S legislatures.

Twentieth century

Suffragette, Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand (1914), KKK(1915),Irgun (1936-1948), World War II, Nationalism and the End of Empire,Cold War proxies,,IRA,,ETA, Aum Shinrikyo (1984-1995), Achille Lauro Hijacking (1985), Lockerbie bombing (1988), Umkhonto we Sizwe (South Africa 1961-1990), PLO (1964-c.1988), Columbian terrorist groups, Munich Massacre (1972),Matsumoto incident(1994), Sarin gas attack on Tokyo subway(1995),and Oklahoma City bombing (1995) are types of terrorism and individual terrorists and groups that operated in the twentieth century.

Twenty-First Centuries

The well-celebrated September 11 (2002) attack and the Beslan school siege are recent terrorist attacks of the twenty-first century.

Terrorism: Definition of a Phenomenon

As clearly stated above, terrorism has established itself as a world phenomenon before 1648. But then, it becomes imperative to look into the true meaning of the term.Although providing a definite definition for it has been accorded with series of controversies, etymologically, the term emanates from Latin, “terrere”, meaning “to frighten” via the French word terrorisme, which is often associated with the regime de la terreur, the Reign of Terror of the revolutionary government in France from 1793 to 1794.The Committee of Public Safety agents that enforced the policies of “The Terror” were referred to as ” Terrorists”.

The English word “terrorism” was first recorded in English dictionaries in 1798 as meaning “systematic use of terror as a policy”. The Oxford English Dictionary still records a definition of terrorism as “Government by intimidation carried out by the party in power in France between 1789-1794.

The controversial issue is that the vocabulary of terrorism has become the successor to that of anarchy and communism the catch-all label opprobrium, exploited accordingly by media and politicians.The difficulty in constructing a definition which eliminates any just cause for terrorism is that history provides too many precedents of organizations and their leaders branded as terrorist but who eventually evolved into respected government. This has applied particularly to national liberation movements fighting colonial or oppressive regimes, engaging in violence within their countries often as a last resort. Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya spent years of his life lobbying the British government before his involvement with the Mau Mau rebellion. Nelson Mandela, a hero in his continent and beyond, is another convicted “terrorist” belonging to this class.

Before making a valid point, it is important to say that this piece would like to consider further statements and criticisms on the issue and recognized that there are other valid arguments on these controversial issues. However, they are not within premises of this paper.

Arriving at a universally accepted definition of terrorism which narrows down to a specific method of conducting violence instead of “all its forms and manifestations” or which makes it possible to refer terrorist acts to an international court, as for genocide and other war crimes or which makes it impossible for individual countries to outlaw activities they choose to classify as terrorism perhaps for their own political interest is a great challenge in the study of terrorism.

While the United Nations has not yet accepted a definition of terrorism, the UN’s “academic consensus definition,” has been put forth for consideration. And they are available for public evaluation.

In final analysis, although, it is not clear the actual number of definitions of terrorism; but it is clear that terrorism does not have respect for human lives and values. It has claimed thousands of lives of innocent souls, rendered millions of people homeless and economically handicapped. Alas, it is clearer that terrorism has turned our world into a place conducive for its existence and spread.

Effects of terrorism on global peace

Indisputably, terrorism is a threat to global peace. As it thrives well in a world such as ours- where violation of human rights, rising violence and conflicts, ethnic, national and religious discrimination, socio-economic marginalization and extreme ideology, dehumanization of victims are prominently in practice, it has succeeded in disregarding human lives and values, launching war on freedom and peace, multiplying violence and conflicts, and posting challenges of solving the problem of injustice, insecurity and declining economy.


In accordance with the United Nations in a report titled: Uniting Against Terrorism-Recommendations for a global counter-terrorism strategy, this paper hereby presents the following recommendations;

(1)All stakeholders-the leaders and the followers, individuals and institutions must dissuade people from resorting to terrorism or supporting it.

(2) All stakeholders, in all ways and at all levels, must deny terrorists the means to carry out an attack by:

– denying terrorists financial support.

-denying terrorists access to deadly weapons, including weapons of mass destruction.

– denying terrorists access to travel.

-denying terrorists access to their targets and their desired impact.

(3) All stakeholders, in all capacities, must deter States from supporting terrorists groups.

(4) All stakeholders must develop State capacity to prevent terrorism by:

– promoting the rule of law and effective criminal justice systems.

– promoting quality education and religious and cultural tolerance.

– countering the financing of terrorism.

– ensuring transport security.

– preventing terrorists from acquiring nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological

materials, and ensuring better preparedness for an attack with such materials

-improving the defense of soft targets and the response to their attack.

– promoting United Nations system-wide coherence in countering terrorism.

(5) All stakeholders, collectively, must defend human rights in the context of terrorism

and counter- terrorism.

Even though my recommendations are fashioned out of United Nations recommendation for a global strategy, they represent a holistic and realistic approach to fighting or countering terrorism. However, if these recommendations are given the opportunity to operate or if implemented and executed properly and continuously, they are effective strategies of countering terrorism and, at the same time, ensuring a world free of violence and conflict, violations of human rights, ethnic, national and religious discrimination, political exclusion, and socio-economic marginalization


As you will agree with me that terrorism affects all of us, our approach to fighting or countering terrorism and ensuring a safe and peaceful world must be collective. However, it is worth noting that the world leaders, followers and stakeholders have vital roles to play in the fight against terrorism and in achieving our goals of global peace and security.

For the world leaders and stakeholders, these roles transcend attending or organizing world summit, conferences, seminars, e.t.c on the topic, and consenting to Global strategy to counter terrorism on papers. They need to commit more resources, at all levels, to the cause, be more sincere and objective in their judgments, more practical in their approach, and create enabling environments conducive for justice, conflict resolutions, human right protection, equality, stability, unity, prosperity, tolerance, peace and security.Above all, they need to promote and support ultimately because that have respect for human lives and values.

For followers and individuals, we need to carry out the message beyond conferences that terrorism is inexcusable and unacceptable. We need to engage in one- to -one education or group discussions enlightening ourselves on the devastating and destructive effects of terrorism on our lives and values, and emphasizing that terrorism is not an effective way of championing a cause, whether political, religious or otherwise. We must recognize that peace is the most precious need of humanity.

Source by Azeez Olawale-Arish Yusuff

If you are tired of showing acne scars on your face I have some good news: there have been some remarkable improvements on mild cosmetic treatments that will fade those annoying superficial acne scars that are affecting your social life and you'd like to eliminate.

Microdermabrasion is a treatment used by dermatologists, estheticians and cosmetic doctors to gently eliminate the top layer of the skin by rubbing on it an abrasive diamond tip or blasting aluminum crystals to remove or fade damaged skin, signs of aging and superficial acne scars.

This skin resurfacing treatment stimulates deeper layers of the skin to promote cellular regeneration and induce collagen production to repair the damaged area. In this way, after a few sessions one can see a rejuvenating effect on the face that now shows a fresh glowing skin.

When treating superficial acne scars, the abrading process will gradually fade out the scars, and as added benefit it will also get rid of fine lines, wrinkles and age spots if they are present.

To obtain the best results and avoid wasting time and money, it is important to see a dermatologist or cosmetic physician to get an evaluation. The treatment varies depending on the depth of your acne scars, skin type and skin color.

During the consultation you will find out exactly what can you expect of the procedure, how many sessions it would take, how much it would cost and then you'll decide if the procedure is worth the investment.

There is now quite a selection of advanced microdermabrasion machines that can adjust the intensity and depth of the treatment to offer you a very personalized intervention. To minimize the risks and side effects and avoid false expectations, make sure to be appreciated by someone with modern equipment, good training and proven experience.

Microdermabrasion with Aluminum Crystals

This procedure uses a device that blows fine aluminum crystals on the skin abrading the topmost layer. The wand used to blast the crystals also has a vacuum tube that will absorb all the crystals and dead cells exfoliated by the treatment. After the session, the fresh, clean skin will feel like sunburn, reddish and a little sore, but this will disappear in a few hours.

The microdermabrasion equipment allows the operator to graduate the intensity of the blast, adjusting the effect to your skin sensitivity and the size and depth of the scars being treated.

Diamond Tip Microdermabrasion

This is probably the best choice because there are different diamond tips from which to select the one that will produce the best results on the given session and there are no aluminum crystals to deal with.

Acne scars are removed on what we could call skin remodeling, the same healing process the skin goes through when it's wounded or damaged. The stimulation produced by the controlled damage of the treatment accelerates the healing process.

After a few sessions the skin renewal process can be noticed, the scars are fading, and your face shows a new texture and appearance with less imperfections. It truly represents a rejuvenating process that will allow you to get a new social life where you will proudly show your new look.

The resurfacing procedure requires no anesthesia, is quite focused, non invasive, only takes about 30 minutes, it represents a minimal risk and there is practically no downtime. You can go back to your daily routines after a couple of hours and probably no one will notice it.

Find out why thousands of patients are investing in microdermabrasion to improve their looks. Get your confidence back, renew your relationships, participate in social events; start fading your acne scars now!

Source by Luis E Gomez

The job market took a hit during the gloomy recession. The markets have stabilized now and this has caused employment opportunities to rise. Now is the correct time to decide your career path. Dental jobs offer you with great opportunity, competition and pay. Dentistry offers you with a lot of career opportunities; we discuss below the job of a dental assistant.

As the job of a dental assistant is more to do with helping the dentist, it does not need knowledge of medicine. Unlike other dental jobs, you can opt for this job even if you have basic education. So do not go by the name of it, you can easily choose to become a dentist's assistant even without higher degrees and medical knowledge. Experience will make you perfect as you can learn while assisting the dentist. Some dentists prefer to take qualified assistants and there are various courses offering such certificates.

The job involves sterilizing dental equipment used by the dentist and his patients. You may also have to take care of the patients during and after the treatment. Keeping records of patients and handling other official paperwork may also be a part of your duty. A dental assistant actually performs a load of duties on behalf of the dentist. Your job will involve handling the appointments and payments. The dentist will expect you to keep a stock of the medical supplies in his clinic. You will need to keep the records of the patients and retrieve them for the dentist. Your efficiency in handling all the above, actually helps the dentist concentrate more on his patients. The care that you offer to the patients, in preparing them for the treatment that they need to undergo as part of their treatment, will need a lot of effort from you. As an assistant you will need to help the dentist execute routine tasks and dental procedures.

Earning Potential

The dental industry has undergone a major uplift, owning to the rise in dental problems. It seems that the future is bright for industry and hence the job prospects are on the rise. With the world market stabilizing, there has been a growth in employment opportunities. Statistics show that the average salary of a dental assistant is around $ 20,000 to $ 33,000 per annual. The job prospects for a dental assistant are good, as dentists are always in lookout for qualified dental assistants. Many dentists prefer assistants who work part-time; this helps in increasing your earnings.

Source by Bhawana Shree

If you are looking to eliminate acne, cure zits and treat pimples you will find that, among other good solutions, laser therapy has some outstanding results. A successful acne blemish laser treatment may include various types of laser exposure such as carbon dioxide lasers or nonablative lasers. Eliminating the negative effects of zits and pimples becomes a reality with such techniques. Most acne blemish laser treatment methods are painless and effective, but they also come at a noticeable price.
How does acne laser treatment work?

This recently approved form of treating severe acne and curing pimples should give you more confidence in the safety and success of the procedure. The laser device emits a smooth laser beam that focuses on the affected areas – one of the best methods for acne blemish laser treatment. It emits pulsating heat below the skin's surface and diminishes the size of the sebaceous glands, which are responsible for acne. Patients of acne blemish laser treatment use creams to numb the area where the laser will be applied, so the process is essentially painless.

Laser acne treatment – types of lasers

Nonablative Lasers. These types of lasers work go underneath the skin to stimulate collagen growth and help tighten underlying skin. Some of the positive results include a good skin tone, a reduction in fine lines and a noticeable effect in skin appearance, thus constituting and excellent acne blemish laser treatment.

Erbium (ER) Lasers also go through the skin, but heat is passed on to water molecules in the skin. Erbium treatment is frequently used on patients who have low to moderate facial wrinkles and blemishes. It is a good choice for zit treatment as well as for removing acne blemishes.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Lasers emit short bursts of high-energy light to the skin. The damaged tissues is vaporized layer by layer. It works well fro removing all types of zits and pimples and is a serious candidate to the position of best acne treatment.

Side effects of acne blemish laser treatment

Some of the commonly encountered side effects include skin discoloration, skin crusting and, in some cases, swelling of the affected areas. The Carbon Dioxide laser is also known to produce higher levels of pigmentation during the acne blemish laser treatment. In most cases the level of these acne blemish laser treatment side effects is low so most patients can have increased confidence in the procedure.

Here are a few useful links:





Source by Michael Rad

Today there is a great deal of “Medical Buzz” about the onset of carryover pain relief, also known as residual pain relief, after using portable interferential equipment for treatment of chronic pain. This is not a new phenomenon but has been going on for more than half a century and quite successfully. The “newness” is the same clinical results are occurring but without having to go to a clinic or hospital.


Interferential therapy has been used by physical therapists, chiropractors, pain clinics, physicians since 1953 with the same carryover pain relief results. It has been the mainstay of those medical professionals in treating patients suffering from chronic pain diseases. Some of the best results have been obtained for those who have been unable to find adequate treatments and they are successfully treated by “alternate”, non drug methods and interferential treatments are the mainstay for those treatments. These are the typical diagnoses that have been treated by interferential therapy:

  • Osteoarthritis
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia
  • Shingles
  • RSD – Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Sciatica
  • Chronic Low Back Pain
  • Post Herpetic Neuralgia
  • Neuralgia pain
  • Phantom Limb Pain
  • Headache pain
  • Muscle pain
  • Neck and Shoulder pain
  • Inflammatory pain
  • Multiple Sclerosis Pain

Many other pain conditions where the patient has been doped out on drugs or told “there is nothing else we can do”. Often the processes of rehabilitation, such as you see where one has suffered a “frozen shoulder”, are enhanced and healing increased by using interferential therapy in conjunction with doing the painful exercises. The interferential helps to overcome the pain created by the exercises and shortens the pain that follows after the exercises are over. None of this is new though.

Let me describe the process that has been going on and on for decades and is totally dependent upon interferential providing carryover pain relief.

1. The patient enters the Chiropractic, Physical Therapy, Pain Clinic or Physician office. Generally at the time of entry the patient has been very uncomfortable due to pain. It has reached the point the patient needs help or it has reached the point the patient is tired of using drugs and not being able to live life due to the masking in the brain. The patient is not going to keep using the drugs but is now hurting and it’s to the point of being unbearable.

The health care practitioner will normally greet the patient and begin to either, if chiropractic, do a manipulation if indicated, or if Physical Therapy, apply warm moist heat and soft tissue massage or stretching. Most chronic pain patients have already tried surgery, injections, pills, and conventional treatments to no avail. They are looking for something that just might work.

After the practitioner has completed the initial treatment the chances are excellent the patient will then lay on a treatment table and begin a 12 to 20 minute interferential treatment. There is a large clinical machine beside the table and the practitioner will apply 2 to 4 self adhering electrodes to the patient. The machine is turned on with the instructions to the patient to tell the practitioner when the patient “feels the sensation”. The interferential machine is turned up till the patient declares it is feeling good to the patient and the pain has diminished. At this point the practitioner sets the timer on the interferential unit and will leave the room. The patient quietly lies on the table until the interferential machine stops treating. Once the machine stops then the patient in almost all cases actually feels better and the pain is either gone or severely diminished.

2. Now the “guessing game” begins. The patient, especially in the Chiropractic field, goes to the payment window and is asked to pay the bill. This is a crucial step in determining the efficacy of the interferential treatment. For many Chiropractic Physicians the service may not have been covered by insurance and the patient is paying out of pocket for the treatment.

If the treatment did not help the patient the patient will be:

1. Reluctant to pay the bill or,

2. Not come back for any future treatments

This is a critical moment for the patient and practitioner. In most cases due to the chronicity of the pain there will be follow up visits for care. The next appointment is also a guessing game. The guess is “when will the pain return” and a guess is made to have a return visit prior to the onset of pain, prevention is always the best course of action, or when will the patient be in so much pain an interferential treatment is needed. This isn’t something to ignore.

It will help to understand the patient now feels much better but the key is how long will the treatment last and the pain stay away. That is the carryover or residual pain relief period that interferential is famous for. That is also the guessing part of when to reschedule the return. This protocol is based on carryover pain relief and has been such for the last 60+ years clinically. It is also the proof of interferential therapy efficacy. The pain free period has to last at least till the patient pays the bill, and hopefully much longer so the patient will return!!!

It’s not only science but also patient success that matters. Did the interferential treatment work? If so the patient returns, if not,then good by or the next appointment is missed or not scheduled at all. That is the strength of interferential therapy over the decades. It has worked and worked well on the most difficult pain patients. The newness now is not that there is carryover pain relief, but with a patient being able to treat when needed with a portable interferential pain machine, then the carryover pain relief is getting extended over time. The newness of extended pain relief is what is and has emerged in the past 18 months.

It’s the advent of self treatment with interferential, without drugs, that is now challenging the understanding of the medical community.

Is there a physiological answer as to why longer periods of no, or reduced pain, is occurring?

It’s my contention there is.

As stated there is no surprise that interferential provides immediate and long lasting pain relief. What is surprising is how, with self treatments, the pain is prevented or treated and the treatments become less frequent.

There is an answer to the physiological side of electrical charges being used to heal. Nothing new as it’s well known anytime positive and negative charges of electricity are applied to the body there are very distinct chemical changes occurring. These charges have been used beneficially therapeutically for decades.

For years positive and negative charges have been used to promote bone healing, non union fractures, so the chemical and physiological changes are known. For many patients suffering with crush injuries amputation was the normal course until it was learned to electrically stimulate for unionization. The use of electricity would restart the process of the bones merging together and effecting a functionally stable reunion.

Equally impressive is the continuing use of electricity for healing bed sores, decubitus ulcers, which started with the use of the form of electricity known as pulsed galvanic stimulation. In the physical therapy profession small, portable electrical devices have been used to make bed sores fill in with tissue and eventually to close and heal completely.

Of course with bones and soft tissue repair the body must have the necessary nutrients to effect the changes electricity can do. Electrical charges alone will not suffice since the electricity initiates the body’s response to heal and the body requires the necessary nutrients and hydration to accomplish the task.

There is no doubt with the pain patient that there exists a chemical process that is causing the pain sensation to be created and transmitted to the brain. That process is indicative of sickness, since chronic pain of unsubstantiated cause, is unnatural and requires therapeutic healing to stop the injurious processes. Possibly the use of interferential with the positive and negative charges is chemically altering the pain stimulus area and the repeated usage of the interferential unit to stop and prevent pain, is altering the chemistry of the area. That alteration may become permanent and it is that permanency which is stopping the unnatural pain impulses. With preventive treatment the body is stopping the chemical changes before they can cause pain.

The electrical intervention is supporting the permanent change that we call carryover pain relief.

Source by Bob G Johnson

Preventing eye wrinkles is one of the most difficult tasks that people have to face. Come to think about it, there is at least one reliable solution against the main problem. Even so, everyone seems to be misinformed, thus creating a myth around the possibility of stopping wrinkles.

The first solution which appeared was the one invented by surgeons. It does not matter if you use injections or plastic surgery, eye wrinkles can be physically removed from your face. This has been a popular method for years, because it appeared to be fast and reliable.

From the moment you step into a plastic surgeon's medical cabinet, he will have to tell you more about the procedure. If you read the fine print, you will notice that this is anything but fast and easy. Most treatments will leave you with an unnatural look and sourness. In other cases, you may have to go through a recovery session.

The most disturbing problem about the surgical way of preventing eye wrinkles is that you will have to end the risks. There are a few bad reactions that you might feel, some worse than others. If this was not enough, the effects are obviously temporary. Because everything will get done on the surface, your body will certainly bring your wrinkles back as soon as it can. This, combined with the high prices make surgical procedures useless, especially because you can try a better method.

Anti-wrinkle skin creams have a bad reputation because many of them fail. But we are not talking about creams, we are talking about ingredients. Specialists have developed many studies just to be sure that they are right about this one: Cynergy TK.

This ingredient is the only one guaranteed to improve your wrinkle condition. Unlike any other treatment, there are no risks involved and the results are long lasting. With Cynergy TK everything will be done naturally and the efficiency rate is simply incredible. It will have the right effects in your body and this will make results visible on the exterior.

Many people, especially those who tried products which contain Cyngery TK, know that by using this type of cream, preventing eye wrinkles can be quite simple.

Source by Laza Marius


Otolaryngology (pronounced oh / toe / lair / in / goll / oh / jee) is the oldest medical specialty in the United States. Otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management and treatment of patients with diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and related structures of the head and neck. They are commonly referred to as ENT doctors. Their special skills include diagnosing and managing diseases of the sinuses, larynx (voice box), oral cavity, and upper pharynx (mouth and throat), as well as structures of the neck and face. Otolaryngologists diagnose, treat, and manage specialist-specific disorders as well as many primary care problems in both children and adults.

Main Idea:

Otolaryngology or ENT (ear, nose, and throat) is the branch of medicine and surgery that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the head and neck.

Otolaryngologist – head and neck surgeons, spend up to 15 years training to treat conditions of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck. Their special skills include diagnosing and managing diseases of the sinuses, larynx (voice box), oral cavity, and upper pharynx (mouth and throat), as well as structures of the neck and face. Otolaryngologists diagnose, treat, and manage specialist-specific disorders as well as many primary care problems in both children and adults.

Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery is a specialty devoted to the care of adult and pediatric patients with problems of the ear, nose, throat, and neck. These doctors are commonly known as ENT physicians.

There are several subspecialties wherein otolaryngologists devote their practices to one or two specific areas of Otolaryngology. These subspecialties include pediatric otolaryngology (children), allergy, sinus surgery, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, head and neck cancer surgery, laryngology (voice and swallowing), otology / neurotology, and skull base surgery.

Many doctors in these subspecialties have spent 1-3 extra years of special training in addition to the general otolaryngology training.

• Otology & neuro-otology:

An otologist / neurotologist is a board-certified otolaryngologist who provides medical and surgical care of patients, both adult and pediatric, with diseases that affect the ears, balance system, temporal bone, skull base, and related structures of the head and neck.

The neurotologist is knowledgeable of the basic sciences of hearing, balance, nerve function, infectious disease, and anatomy of head and neck. Their diagnostic, medical, and surgical skills include treatment of hearing loss and tinnitus, dizziness, infectious and inflammatory diseases of the ear, facial nerve disorders, congenital malformations of the ear, and tumors of the ear, hearing nerve, and skull base.

• Rhinology:

It is a subspecialty of ENT that deals with diseases of the nose and the sinuses including Rhinosinusitis (nose and sinus allergy), nasal obstruction, nasal polyps and nose bleeds. It also involves treating diseases close to the nose such as prominent eyes in thyroid disease, and watery eyes caused by blocked tear ducts in addition to exclamation of tumors in this area.

• Laryngology:

Laryngology is that branch of medicine which deals with disorders, diseases and injuries of the vocal apparatus, especially the larynx. Common conditions addressed by laryngologists include vocal fold nodules and cysts, laryngeal cancer, spasmodic dysphonia, laryngopharyngeal reflux, papillomas, and voice misuse / abuse / overuse syndromes.

Otolaryngologists treat the following:

• The Ears – The unique domain of otolaryngologists is the treatment of ear disorders. They are trained in both the medical and surgical treatment of hearing, ear infections, balance disorders, ear noise, nerve pain, and facial and cranial nerve disorders. Otolaryngologists also manages congenital (birth) disorders of the outer and inner ear.

• The Nose – Care of the nasal cavity and sinuses is one of the primary skills of otolaryngologists. Management of the nasal area includes allergies and sense of smell. Breathing through, and the appearance of, the nose are also part of otolaryngologists' expertise.

• The Throat – Communicating (speech and singing) and eating a meal all involve this vital area. Also specific to otolaryngologists is expertise in managing diseases of the larynx (voice box) and the upper aero-digestive tract or esophagus, including voice and swallowing disorders.

• The Head and Neck – In the head and neck area, otolaryngologists are trained to treat infectious diseases, both benign and malignant (cancerous) tumors, facial trauma, and deformities of the face. They perform both cosmetic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

ENT treatment will vary according to what type of problems or symptoms you are having. In the early stages of a disorder, surgical procedures may not be warranted, as in tonsillitis, for example. Early treatments will also depend on whether or not the disorder is related to an infection. If an infection is suspected, tests may be performed to determine whether the cause is bacterial or viral. Viral infections will not respond to antibiotics.

If surgical procedures are indicated, the doctor or nurse will give you instructions to follow before the surgery, including when you need to stop eating solid foods, when to stop drinking clear liquids and whether or not you will need to start or stop any medications before the surgery.

Some common surgical treatments:

• Facial Cosmetic Surgery

• Facial Reconstructive Surgery

• Neck Dissection (removal of lymph nodes in the neck)

• Parotidectomy


Some common services of Otolaryngology:

• Division of Audiology: provides comprehensive diagnostic and rehabilitative services for both children and adults.

• Newborn Screening: testing of newborn infants.

Source by Rekha Reddy S

The original purpose of internet filtering software was to protect people, especially children, from being exposed to pornography on the internet. Several years ago it was easy for anyone to accidently stumble upon pornographic materials online. In fact, one of the biggest problems was if children needed to do school assignments and tried to look up information on the White House.

If a child went to whitehouse dot gov all was well, but if they accidently used a .com, .org or .net extension instead, it bought them to a pornographic website. As a result of similar incidents to that, there was a huge demand for internet filtering software.

Unfortunately, since internet filtering software depends on filtering for certain keywords, there were problems. Any search containing bad words was blocked. That included such searches as breast cancer and Superbowl XXX, as well as many others.

One of the major cases involving such a problem was at the University of Kansas Medical Center library. They installed internet filtering software on all of their computers, only to discover that their own website was absolutely blocked by it. The reason was that it is called Dykes Library. On top of that, as it was a medical library, it had lots of materials that internet filtering software blocked. In that particular instance, internet filtering software was a waste of money.

Aside from that, many internet filtering software companies took their filtering quite a bit too far. One even went so far as to block the website for the National Organization of Women. Also, as a general rule, many times such companies blocked the websites of their competitors, as well.

These days it is very hard for a child, or even an adult, to accidentally find pornography online, while looking for something innocent. Most search engines are filtered these days. They are not as fooled as they once were.

The major exception to that is if a person is on a website such as crackz or warez. These are websites which are used to illegally downloading software. Many websites, such as those, gain income by allowing pornographic websites to advertise on them. So, if your child is trying to illegally download software, they may accidently find pornography.

If internet filtering software is not always accurate and is not really needed in the same ways it was, you may be wondering why you still need it. Well, it still offers many benefits. For example, it is capable of blocking pop-up ads. It can also filter your e-mail. You can even use it to filter or block IM ports, newsgroups, and chat rooms. You can even use internet filtering software to set up individual, password protected profiles on your computer. That way, certain family members have access to certain things. Some even come with the ability to monitor someones online behavior without their knowledge, which can be helpful if you are a concerned parent.

So, you may want to invest in such software. If you do decide to use internet filtering software, though, be sure to research it and find exactly the right software to suit your individual needs.

Source by Leroy West

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). This type of virus has been recently identified to cause a wide range of liver diseases such as cirrhosis (liver cancer). Without the aid of treatment, persons with hepatitis C can over time develop serious complications that involve the liver, including cancerous activity at the level of the organ. In order to minimize the risks of complications and to control the effects of hepatitis C, doctors often prescribe a course of specific medications right after they identify the presence of HCV in patients. As in the case of other similar infectious diseases, hepatitis C treatments are most efficient when prescribed in the early stages of the infection. Otherwise, hepatitis C can eventually become chronic, rendering existing treatments unable to completely cure the infection.

Hepatitis C treatments commonly used involve the administration of interferon, a medication that was initially designed to treat patients diagnosed with leukemia. Interferon is actually a natural body protein produced when viral infectious agents intrude inside the human body. Although the body produces interferon in small quantities, this protein is very effective in fighting against viral infections. However, the beneficial effects of interferon can nowdays be enhanced by modifying the protein in the laboratory. The majority of patients with mild, uncomplicated forms of hepatitis C generally respond well to treatments with interferon, completely recovering from disease after completing longer courses with this type of medication. At the opposite pole, patients with chronic or more advanced forms of hepatitis C are often confronted with relapse soon after they stop receiving such treatments.

The main problem with interferon-based treatments is that they are inappropriate for patients with chronic forms of hepatitis C. In addition, long-term treatments with interferon can produce several side-effects and thus they are not usually administrated for more than 6 months . For patients with chronic hepatitis C and patients who fail to respond to treatments with interferon, combination treatments are generally the best option available. Commonly used combination treatments consist of peginterferon (chemically altered alpha interferon) and strong antiviral medications. A very extensively used antiviral medication is ribavirin. This efficient antiviral agent is often administrated along with peginterferon in order to obtain the best results. Administered in the right doses and over longer periods of time, combination treatments with peginterferon and ribavirin can successfully cure patients with acute hepatitis C, as well as patients with chronic, recidivating forms of the disease.

While these previously mentioned forms of treatment are effective among patients with uncomplicated forms of hepatitis C, they are often useless when administered to patients with advanced hepatitis. For patients with severe hepatitis C, liver transplant is the only available option in present.

Source by Groshan Fabiola

If traditional dental practice could be viewed as the mouth's caretaker – fixing and maintaining healthy teeth and gums and damaging decay – cosmetic dentistry would be the mouth's interior decorator. Its mission is enhancing the beauty of the patient.

Yet like the practice of plastic surgery, cosmetic dentistry sometimes uses the same techniques and materials as traditional dental services. Many people who have had injuries or illnesses that have damaged their teeth or enamel may need repairs that both make them look better and ensure that their teeth remain strong or useful. These repairs can be done by cosmetic dentists or often by dentists with a more general practice. But the bulk of the practice for cosmetic dentists are elective procedures.

Improvements in dental hygiene have dramatically affected the practice of dentistry. Sealants, fluorides and electric toothbrushes have cut the number of cavities. About half of all schools have no cavities, compared with 28 percent who were cavity-free in the early 1970s. Adults lose fewer teeth and get less gum disease now. This good news on oral health has meant a sharp decline in dental business.

The advent of cosmetic dentistry has rejuvenated some practices. Cosmetic dentistry is not recognized as a specialty by the American Dental Association, and general-practice dentists can offer these services without meeting any special requirements. Dental magazines are filled with tips on how dentists can boost their business by offering and promoting cosmetic services, while dentistry schools are offering more courses on cosmetic procedures. Some dentists now help patients visualize proposed changes with fancy new video and computer equipment.

Cosmetic dentistry is not cheap. For example, it can cost thousands of dollars to get a newly designed smile through the miracle of veneering, or adding synthetic enamel, which must be replaced after three to 12 years. Insurance generally does not cover cosmetic procedures, so the cost is entirely out of pocket.

Some of the techniques used in cosmetic dentistry are:

– Bleaching. Using peroxide gels to make teeth whiter is especially popular because it is relatively simple and cheaper than covering over stained teeth with bonding materials or veneers. Dentists can bleach in the office in a series of two to seven sessions or can make a plastic dental tray for patients to use with bleaching gel at home, a process that takes longer to get the same results. The process costs anywhere from $ 300 to $ 900 per upper or lower row of teeth.

Contouring. Another relatively conservative procedure uses a sandwich disc to give new shape to teeth or make them less crowded. This might cost $ 50 to $ 75 per tooth.

– Gum removal. Dentists also can surgically remove excess gum from above front teeth for people with "gummy" smiles. This can run several thousand dollars for the entire job.

– Bonding. This uses a composite resin material to close gaps and nicks. Requiring one office visit and little if any tooth reduction, it was an advance over capping (also called crowning), which involves grinding teeth down to stems and covering the stumps with porcelain crowns. Crowns are still needed to fix some severely damaged or disappointed teeth, but bonding will cover less serious flaws. Bonding can cost between $ 200 and $ 1,000 per tooth and lasts anywhere from three to 10 years.

Cosmetic dentists sometimes also advise patients to replace their old silver-colored amalgam fillings in back teeth with white composite resins. The resins last five to eight years, while silver amalgam can last for decades.

– Veneers. These fingernail-thin porcelain shells are bonded to the fronts of individual teeth to whiten and reshape them and fill in gaps, after a thin layer of enamel has been ground off. It takes two office visits, one to make an impression of the tooth to send to a laboratory and one to apply the veneer. The cost ranges from $ 500 to $ 2,000 per tooth. Veneers generally last anywhere from three to 12 years. They must then be replaced, because the natural enamel is gone.

Source by Alexandru L Simion

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