January 2021

Jesus’ initial address at the Synagogue in Nazareth, chronicled in Luke 4:16-30, hall-marked the arrival of His mission to “bring good news to the poor.” This essay seeks to focus on this key event and to explore the Lukan focus of the ministry of Jesus, regarding His interaction, concern and works, to the poor, within the Gospel.

Strauss (1995) states that it is almost universally accepted that Jesus’ first sermon at Nazareth was programmatically significant for the Gospel of Luke. Indeed, all commentators referenced in this essay posit that Luke has a special focus on highlighting the plight of the marginalised, indeed Moyter (1995) declares that the Gospel of John, for instance, shows “no interest in the poor.” (p. 70). Strauss (1995) proclaims the idea that Jesus effectively states, in the Nazareth sermon, that He is the “messianic herald” by both announcing and also bringing fulfillment to God’s eschatological salvation. (p. 221).

This essay will focus initially on the theology of the Nazareth Synagogue Rejection narrative before detailing some of the works of Jesus that are highlighted in Luke that demonstrate the broadness of His interest in freeing the poor. Further, the use of the word poor in this essay is to be taken in the broader context, as Green (1993, 1994) and others put it, as for those who are socially outcast.


Strauss (1995) highlights Jesus’ analogies in vv. 25-27, in relation to Elijah and Elisha–their deeds in these verses in blessing Gentiles–that His public ministry would centre around the outsider, for example, the sinner, the tax collector, women, the lame, children, and non-Jews; most categorically, seeking the Gentile population. Whilst Strauss (1995) indicates this messianic calling sought to redeem the “‘outcasts’ in the Gospel”, he emphatically stops short of saying these verses announce “God’s rejection of Israel.” (p. 223). Until this time, the passages suggest the Nazareth congregation was simply amazed by Jesus’ words. In verse 28, however, we learn that they “were filled with rage” in response to Jesus’ comparisons of himself to these prophets.

Strauss (1995) elicits the strong link, theologically, of the books of Isaiah (prophecy) and Luke and Acts (fulfillment), for example, with reference to “light and darkness, blindness and sight” in relation to healing and the release of those ‘in prison.’ (p. 237). Indeed, there are intrinsic linkages in both Luke and Acts back to Isaiah (Strauss, 1995).

The quoting of the passages from Isaiah in Luke 4:16-30 proves most interesting. Hertig (1998) exegetes this in the justification of the ‘astonished’ responses of the congregation. He tells us that the framing that Jesus used when quoting the parts of Isaiah 61 and 58 used, that He is both proclaiming Yahweh’s freedom to the oppressed, but stops short of quoting the second half of verse 2 of chapter 61 – “and the day of vengeance of our God” – meaning that the Jews expectation of the Messiah to do just that is erroneous (also in Strauss, 1995). It is worth noting Hertig (1998) quoting Prior (1995) in saying that the combination use of Isaiah 61 and 58 “intensifies the social dimension of the prophetic message [providing] a striking corrective to any religious practice which is carried on without concern for the poor, and especially so when religious activity continues in the very act of oppressing them.” (p. 168). Strauss (1995) broadens the aspect of Jesus’ “royal-messianic portrait” by painting the picture that the Christ is not the type of Saviour that Jewish Tradition is really expecting. (p. 198).

Strauss (1995) agrees that the congregation at Nazareth we’re both amazed and offended by Jesus’ words. Hertig (1998) argues however that whilst the response from the congregation is perceived by Jesus as outright rejection, it is actually a positive response. This event is “transitional in the life and ministry of Jesus.” (p. 168). Green (1995) cites that Jesus says “me” three times in the passage. It is Hertig (1998) who raises Jesus’ intent to install the Year of Jubilee as initially referred in Leviticus 25 as part of the Messianic mission – “to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor” and the phrase “sent me to proclaim release to the captives.” Strauss (1995) contends however, that whilst the jubilee theme may not be central to the Lukan message, he does suggest that eschatologically, it does apply to “release from those afflicted by Satan.” (p. 221).

In the exegesis of the passage Hertig (1998) shows that not only is Jesus “the bearer of good news to the poor, but equally the deliverer of the poor in their sufferings.” (p. 172). Moreover, this leads him to hypothesize that the deliverance is holistic in nature – bringing spiritual, physical, socio-political, and psychological freedom for those oppressed (Hertig, 1998).

The poor in the context of Luke are put in Old Testament terms as being those of “both social and religious humility.” (Hertig, 1998, p. 173). This shows us that the poor are not those just financially destitute, but those who are “victims of unjust structures of society.” (p. 173).

Green (1994) points out that in no less than six different places we see the use of the word ‘poor’ in Luke’s Gospel. He is quick to cite however that the word is used in quite different contexts, referring to many different kinds of suffering, including: the oppressed, mournful, hungry, persecuted, and some different forms of the physically impaired.


It is clear from the previous discussion that Luke’s Gospel portrays the core of Jesus’ ministry to deliver the marginalised of society. Again, Green (1995) shows Luke portraying Jesus “continuously in the company of those on the margins of society.” (p. 84). This section will discuss the actual outworking of the theology through some of the examples Luke brought us.

The story of Jesus and Zacchaeus (Luke 19:1-10) is topical in its use of the ‘rich man’ paradigm that Hertig (1998) shows us. Zacchaeus is shown to give half his possessions away and repay four times that he owes others. Zacchaeus’ deed demonstrates effectively the “jubilee theme” – the spreading of wealth to the poor – and he summarily receives blessing from Jesus. (p. 175). Seccombe (1983) shows how Luke skilfully places the Zacchaeus account after the blind beggar story (chapter 18), demonstrating Jesus’ deep concern for the salvation of all those estranged from God, the rich and poor; the socially outcast. Luke seeks to show that both Zacchaeus and the blind beggar are of equal standing in the kingdom of God (Seccombe, 1983).

In the Parable of the Great Dinner (Luke 14:15-24), Hertig (1998) displays the further use of jubilee language. The eschatological significance of this parable is profound. Not only will those who are invited to the Dinner, reject the invitation, but once new invitees are invited, anyone on the initial list who does arrive for the Dinner will be rejected! In verse 21 Luke quotes Jesus referring to the second invitees as “the poor, the crippled, the blind, and the lame” deducing that the ‘marginalised’ of society would be the beneficiaries of the second invitation to all.

The outworking evidence of Jesus’ ministry to the marginalised group in women is another recurring theme in Luke’s Gospel. Green (1995) shows nine key passages in Luke whereby women are portrayed in a positive light, being restored to life by repenting from sin, being benefactors of the Lord, and even being “spokespersons for God” as were Mary and Elisabeth in the Birth narrative. Indeed, it is in the resurrection narrative that women are blessed to witness the events and to believe much more readily than he disciples did initially. This shows the women in a much more godly light than men – “Their faithful witness is set in contrast to the response of the male disciples.” (Green, 1995, p. 93).


Hertig (1998) states “Luke’s jubilee theme of rich and poor is a promise to the poor and a challenge to the rich.” (p. 176). I have used this essay to highlight the Lukan message of Jesus’ ministry to the marginalised of society, framing it eschatologically, together with the Leviticus 25 jubilee theme; the evidence of which was lacking in Old Testament times (Hertig, 1998).

Green (1994) shows Luke’s focus to open the way to understand Jesus’ mission was, and is, and is to be, one of “proclaim[ing] release to the captives” and lett[ing] the oppressed go free” to their eternal salvation.


DeSilva, D.A., An Introduction to the New Testament: Contexts, Methods & Ministry Formation. (InterVarsity, Downers Grove, Illinois, 2004)

Green, J.B. ‘Good News to Whom? Jesus and the “Poor” in the Gospel of Luke’ 59-74 in Jesus of Nazareth: Lord and Christ: Essays on the Historical Jesus and New Testament Christology. (Eds. J.B. Marshall and M. Turner. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.)

Green, J.B., New Testament Theology: The Theology of the Gospel of Luke. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995.)

Hendrickx, H., The Third Gospel for the Third World – Volume Two-A. (Claretian Publications, Philippines, 1997)

Hertig, P., The Jubilee Mission of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: Reversals of Fortunes in Missiology: An International Review, Volume XXVI Number 2 April 1998.

Motyer, S., ‘Jesus and the Marginalised in the Fourth Gospel’ 70-89 in Mission and Meaning: Essays Presented to Peter Cotterell. (Paternoster Press, Carlisle, 1995.)

Seccombe, D.P., Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt – Possessions and the Poor in Luke-Acts. (Prof. DDr A. Fuchs, Linz, 1983.)

Strauss, M.L., The Davidic Messiah in Luke-Acts: The Promise and its Fulfillment (sic) in Lukan Christology. (Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, England, 1995.)

Willoughby, R. ‘The Concept of Jubilee and Luke 4:14-30’ 41-55 in Mission and Meaning: Essays Presented to Peter Cotterell. (Paternoster Press, Carlisle, 1995.)

All referenced Bible verses taken from the New Revised Standard Version, Zondervan ISBN 0-310-90236-3.

Source by Steve Wickham

The itch is driving your crazy! You need help now!

Rashes due to poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac all look about the same – raised, reddened, blistering bumps in areas of exposure. All are caused by hypersensitivity to plants containing urushiol. The rash and itching begin 24 to 48 hours after exposure, worsening over the next several days. Assuming you’ve had a shower by the time the rash has appeared, poison ivy is not contagious. The only way to share it is if the plant oil is still on your skin and you touch another person. Blister fluid is not contagious.

Though in some cases people worry about their appearance, for most the itch is what drives them to seek medical care.

Here are 5 tips for quick relief.

1. Use an OTC antihistamine. Over-the-counter antihistamines are every bit as good as prescription antihistamines. The primary benefit of using these is decrease in itching, though they may decrease swelling a little. The main side-effect is drowsiness with certain antihistamines, though this can be a benefit if the itch is keeping you awake. The non-sedating antihistamines are Claritin (loratadine) and Zyrtec (cetirizine). The sedating antihistamines are Benadryl (diphenhydramine), chlorpheniramine, and doxylamine (found in sleep aids and Nyquil). If these are effective in decreasing your symptoms and the appearance of the rash is not a concern, an antihistamine may be all you require. The rash will go away on its own if you can wait it out – which usually takes 2 to 4 weeks.

2. Use an OTC topical preparation. Calamine lotion and oatmeal baths help relieve the itch but do not actually decrease the rash. 1% hydrocortisone cream is effective at reducing the itch and healing the rash in mild cases. For a more severe reaction, prescription medication may be needed. Hydrocortisone decreases the body’s reaction to the offending oil, making the rash appear less red and irritated. Any of these may be used in addition to an antihistamine.

3. Call your doctor for a prescription. Your doctor may be willing to prescribe you medication over the phone, or may require you to come in for an appointment to make sure your self-diagnosis is correct. Prescription options include stronger steroid creams, steroid shots, and steroid pills. For small areas of rash, the creams are most appropriate. However, for larger areas or rash on the face (especially if the eyes are swollen shut) steroid injections or oral medications are appropriate. Usually the rash begins to improve by 24 to 48 hours after initiating treatment. Don’t make the mistake of stopping the medicine as soon as the rash appears better – it will likely return if you quit too soon. A five day treatment plan is the minimum, but often 10 to 14 days of medication is advisable.

4. Watch for secondary infection. Any open area of skin can become infected. If the area of redness is increasing, or especially if you see pus (not just clear blister fluid), see your doctor to learn if you need an antibiotic.

5. Do not use triple antibiotic ointment or Benadryl cream. When applied to the skin, both the neomycin in triple antibiotic ointment and the active ingredient in Benadryl cream (diphenhydramine) can cause a rash that looks just like poison ivy. Many a patient has made the problem worse or confused the diagnosis by using these over-the-counter preparations. (Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) taken orally does not cause this problem.)

Lastly, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Avoid contact with the leaves, stems, and roots of the plants, all of which contain urushiol. If you pull the plants out, use disposable gloves and throw both the plants and gloves away. Burning the plant can put the chemical in the air and cause a serious rash to anyone exposed to the smoke.

Copyright 2010 Cynthia J. Koelker, M.D.

Source by Cynthia Koelker

It’s common for people to never think twice about what they drink and how it is affecting their teeth. The reality is that people may cause harm to their teeth by making the wrong choice of beverage.

Most people know that proper dental care involves brushing and flossing regularly, as well as seeing the dentist every six months for a check up and cleaning. What many people do not realize is that proper dental care also involves knowing what to drink, and being careful about what quantities are consumed.

Some beverages are very beneficial to your dental health. Here are three examples of drinks to consider:

Not just antioxidants – green tea

Green tea is a healthy drink that supplies you with antioxidants that have been shown to help prevent plaque build up on teeth. Drinking green tea on a regular basis may help to reduce cavities and lower the risk for gum disease. Tea has also been shown to help fight bacteria that causes bad breath.

Rich in calcium – milk

Milk is beneficial for teeth, especially for children. It’s low in acid and a beverage that contains high levels of calcium. Calcium is great for keeping enamel strong since teeth are largely made up of it. This helps promote healthy white teeth – and a great smile.

An ancient source – spring water

Water is naturally good for the body. It can help wash away debris in the mouth that may be stuck between teeth. Water can contain minerals that help restore a natural balance in your teeth. Natural spring water is a great choice or water filtered using a reverse-osmosis process – you can then enhance it with some natural mineral drops, after the unhealthy contaminants are removed.

A drink to avoid

Not everything you drink is good for the teeth. One of the main ingredients in beverages that is damaging to teeth is sugar. Sugar causes cavities which can decay your teeth. Another harmful ingredient is acid. Acid wears away tooth enamel and can leads to cavities and other damage to your teeth and gum. These two things together create the environment for serious tooth damage.

Together, they are found in soda pop. Soda pop is not a very healthy beverage. It is not just soda, though. Really anything that contains sugar or is highly acidic can be harmful.

Fruit juices, coffee and energy drinks contain sugar and acids that can be damage your teeth. Of course, it is possible to make healthier beverages like tea, milk and water less healthy by adding sugar or sweetened flavorings. It’s best to stay with natural drinks and not add anything that could do more harm than good.

Instead of drinking soda, try some green tea, milk or water. Tea, milk and water can often be a much better way to satisfy your thirst – and they are much more beneficial to your dental health.

Try swapping soda or other sugary and acidic drinks for one of these better choices. Making the choice of better beverages will keep your teeth healthier throughout your life.

Source by Mary W Brophy

Dental scaling is mainly intended to remove the tartar and plaque from the tooth surfaces. Scaling is one of the most effective ways to treat the gum disease before it becomes severe. Every time, instead of considering in office dental scaling treatment, you can find various alternatives to scaling. This article gives you top 5 alternatives to scaling.

Periodontal diseases need not be one of the reasons for your tooth loss. Many effective treatments are available to treat various gum diseases. Dental scaling is a thorough deep cleansing of tartar and plaque on the tooth surfaces and periodontal pockets typically located in the gums and smooths the teeth roots to eliminate bacterial toxins. Below is an alternatives list for dental scaling.

1. Ultrasonic scalers

This is an effective and fast scaling treatment used to eliminate tartar from the tooth surface rapidly. It works using scaling tip that vibrates depending on ultrasonic power frequency between 18 kHz to 32 kHz. The heat generated at the tip is cooled by jet water and is very essential to move over the mineralized teeth to remove plaque.

Remember that you should not use the scaler for more than 10 seconds on any individual tooth and don’t press it harder than one ounce of pressure.

2. Vita Pick

Vita Pick is a technique kills the damaging bacteria in pockets of gums three times deeper than any other conventional means. Vita Pick is a re-usable and durable pen-sized applicator specially designed to deliver effective antiseptic solutions comprised of hydrogen peroxide and salt solution in the gum pockets 12mm deeper and thus removes bacterial toxins.

3. Periowave

Periowave involves a non-thermal laser light that is combined with a photosensitizing solution uniquely designed to kill toxic bacteria developed with a gum disease. It effectively removes the calculus build up in the gum pockets and relieves from gum diseases.

4. Metronidazole Gel

Metronidazole gel, anti-infective agent is a good alternative to deep scaling and root planning in the treatment of adult periodontics. It is designed to treat dental infections of bacterial origin over the tooth surfaces. It is not recommended if you are allergic to new medicines.

5. Soft tissue layers

Many dental professionals may employ the use of lasers to remove plaque and toxic bacteria in the roots of teeth. It traps the bacteria accumulated in the gum pockets and gives you relief from further teeth damage and pain associated with various gum diseases due to plaque formation.

Source by Nancy P Shevell

Do you want your children to maintain those healthy gleaming pearly whites as they grow older? Well, who would not want that?

Well, are you ready to learn the ultimate secret in having a perfect set of teeth? Well, brace yourselves for this – it’s plain good old dental hygiene!

Have you ever thought for a moment that there will be some rocket-science revelations in here? Sorry if this disappointed you, but the secret really lies in establishing a good dental routine at an early age (as soon as the first milk tooth appears!).

A baby with good dental hygiene may be able to avoid various dental problems such as tooth decay, gum disease and abscesses. Mind you, these dental problems are not only painful – they may even require a treatment or two, which can be quite costly as well! Plus, good dental hygiene may have a lasting effect on his or her facial appearance and speech development as well.

Encouraging the Development of Healthy Milk Teeth

Your baby’s teeth start to develop even before he or she is born. When your baby is about 6 to 9 months old, the first tooth (also called milk tooth or deciduous tooth) will normally start to appear.

Take care of your baby’s milk teeth as if they were gold. They will serve as the foundation of how the mature teeth will eventually form.

How Can You Prevent Dental Problems in Babies? Aside from proper brushing and regular dental visits, there are still several things that you can do to make sure that your baby’s or any younger child’s teeth remain healthy. Here are some suggestions that you may find useful:

o Load up on calcium. Make sure that your baby drinks enough milk and starts eating calcium-rich foods when he or she is old enough to do so. This will help ensure proper teeth development and may help maintain good dental health as well.

oSay no to sugar! Steer away from sugar-rich foods and drinks. You may also want to try sugar-free medications whenever possible.

o Minimize contact with sugar – Sugar is not in any way good for your baby’s dental health. However, if it cannot be avoided, try to feed your baby with sugary foods only during mealtimes. It will minimize the amount of time that the sweet foods spend in your child’s mouth and may help lessen the risk of developing dental problems later on.

o Do not add sugar in a baby’s bottle. Sugary drinks in baby’s bottle are an absolute no-no since it can play a significant part in promoting dental decay. When feeding your baby with juice, dilute it first and have him or her take it from a cup.

o Opt for healthy alternatives – Offer your baby some cheese or fruits as snacks between meals. These contain essential nutrients vital for good dental health.

o Children sucking their thumb or fingers should be discouraged from doing so. This is an unhealthy dental habit that can affect the development of your baby’s teeth.

o Try to avoid using dummies (also known as pacifiers). These can also affect your baby’s teeth. And please, if you are going to use them anyway, don’t dip them in honey or fruit juices! That will do twice the damage!

Source by Michael Russell

Zara’s Rosa Bulgara is a natural perfume for women. It was introduced in 2008, so it’s quite new and was made by Puig. The new Zara perfumery line was made by Carlos Bena’m and Alberto Morillas, two figures in the perfumery world that have earned quite of a reputation in the last years.

Rosendo Mateu, a famous figure in the perfumery industry, created most of the perfumes. I Homme was launched in year 2003. In 2008 there were six fresh releases in Zara’s perfumery – three for women and three for men: the aforementioned Rosa Bulgara, Flor de Azahar, Sandalo, Lirio de Agua, Ambar and Vetiver. The perfumes mentioned are from Zara’s newest perfumery brand called Agua Perfumada.

Zara applies the company’s most distinct feature when it comes to introducing new products. Zero marketing policy. They let the people market them rather than spending millions on advertising. They invest most of their revenue in new stores, discovering new perfumery and other things that are obviously more needed than a marketing campaign in the long run. Zara’s new brand, Rosa Bulgara, is considered “extremely powerful”, “long lasting” and “simply enchanting” by some of the customers.

The aim of Zara’s new fragrance business is obviously breaking into the perfumery industry, and since the economical crisis we are witnessing can really be painful for the company in the long run, breaking into other markets is a desirable thing to do. We’ll be looking forward to finding out about other brands of perfumery from Zara, and we’ll see – maybe there’ll be more Zara perfumery shops in Europe in a few years than there are clothing shops. One thing is certain – Zara won’t give up and they’re in it for the long haul!

Source by Kelsie Polsier

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