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Dentistry

The women’s suffrage movement began on both sides of the Atlantic with passion and grit. This revolution was the descendant of the Enlightenment ideas placed forth by philosophers during The Age of Reason. The idea of the suffrage movement was founded upon the concept that all human beings are created equal and are born with natural rights that they have a duty and an obligation to exercise. The Women’s Rights Movement was a struggle throughout because of the people in power who opposed it, but the movement was ultimately triumphant because of the men and women who fought devotedly for their beliefs. That fight for the vote now allows women today to freely practice a fundamental right. It took a hundred years for it to come to pass, beginning at the time of Mary Wollstonecraft and the Marquis de Condorcet. The law now permits women to practice the rights and responsibilities that come with citizenship.

The women’s suffrage movement became a struggle to achieve because of the people, who opposed the notion that women had a duty to stand up for their natural-born rights. The movement imposed the principles of equality, liberty, and political justice and these ideas were not advantageous to the people who had power in a divided society. The proletarians were the ones that supported women’s rights, but the prominent, affluent, and powerful were afraid to change a system that worked to their benefit. The socialist and feminist ideas were not appealing to the people who had positions in parliament or government. Henry James, a British politician made a speech in The House of Commons in 1871, that gave reasons to neglect and disregard social equality when it came to matters of the state. He warningly advised the House of the wrongdoings of the opposite sex, “… women would have to make judgments on the basis of information obtained second-hand, and not from practical experience?”

Henry James states that women do not have superior experience when it comes to having an opinion and deciding on political matters. James is part of a political system that gives him power and authority to converse to a group of prominent men and place substantial amount of influence on them. The socialist vision of equality cannot chime with men who wish to gain a higher social standing in a community. A year before this speech, in 1870, the husband of Emmeline Pankhurst, (a women who was the driving force behind the suffragettes) Dr. Richard Pankhurst, drafted the first bill that allowed women to get the right to vote known as the Women’s Disabilities Removal Bill which was later introduced in House of Commons. This proves that the ideas of Henry James are slowly beginning to deteriorate because men and women were on their way to persuading the government that women needed their natural rights. This can be compared to the Industrial Revolution and the dominance the factory owners had over their workers. The factory owners did not want to give up the power that they had over their laborers the way the people of Parliament wouldn’t want to believe that their power might be equal to that of a women’s.

Francesco Crispi, a liberal Italian politician believed that women must not have an opinion when it comes to political arrangements that are made by the government. Women are made for the well being of the man. Crispi regarded women as peacemakers that are made to calm a man after a tiresome and laborious day. In 1883, to the Italian Senate, Crispi authoritatively declared “… the day when women participate in public business, you will find war.” He believed that the suffrage movement would cause social and political disorders in society that would lead to an universal imbalance. He is considered a liberal but his ideas reflect on orthodox and traditional ways of thinking. This “liberal” Italian politician is ignorant of the ideas of the Enlightenment and has taken many steps back because of his ideals. The French philosopher Condorcet said, “Have they all not violated the principle of equality of rights in tranquility depriving one half of the human race of the right of taking part in the formation of laws by the exclusion of women from the rights of citizenship.” Francesco Crispi, the future Prime Minister of Italy, is known as the precursor of Benito Mussolini, a man who was against women’s rights. Crispi is also speaking to the Italian senate and wants to appeal to them, and so his ideas, like that of Henry James are directed to commanding men of government. Many Italian men might be against the concept of social equality of both genders. If involved in government, male authoritarians ascertain that women may neglect their household duties and the peace that they create for the man’s benefit and pleasure will slowly diminish.

Henry James and Francesco Crispi have similar ideologies to that of Count Reventlow. Count Reventlow, a Nazi politician spoke for the Prevention of the Emancipation of Women in 1912. The German man appreciates only a certain kind of women. Reventlow passionately stated to the crowd, “Women want to rule and we don’t want to let them. The German Empire was created with blood and iron. That was man’s work. If women helped… they stood behind their men in battle and fired them on to kill as many enemies as possible.” Count Reventlow believes that men have fought for their rights during wars, and he only appreciates the women who supported their men when they fought for their country, and he looks down on the women who fight for their individual rights. Women are meant to support men and are not meant to make decisions for the man. Reventlow, a German naval officer and Nazi politician enjoys both his national identity and his place in the social hierarchy. Since he is speaking to a group of people who are against the women’s suffrage movement, we can decipher that he is encouraging men & women of wealthy backgrounds who do not need to the right to vote to work against a proletarian cause. Rosa Luxemburg a German revolutionary socialist on the same year (1912), made a speech concerning Women’s Suffrage and Class Struggle.

“In truth, our state is interested in keeping the vote from working women and from them alone. It rightly fears they will threaten the traditional institutions of class rule, for instance militarism (of which no thinking proletarian woman can help being a deadly enemy), monarchy, the systematic robbery of duties and taxes on groceries, etc. Women’s suffrage is a horror and abomination for the present capitalist state because behind it stand millions of women who would strengthen the enemy within, i.e., revolutionary Social Democracy.” Rosa Luxemburg has remembered the ideas of Condorcet and Wollstonecraft and through her words, like Count Reventlow, is trying to influence a specific group of people. Their ideas vary and are at opposite ends of the table. Luxemburg is moving forward with her ideas about equality in gender, and Reventlow makes a proposition to the people of authority to pause and realize that women do not deserve the rights that men have gained over time. However, Count Reventlow has forgotten the times when men and women (proletarians), together fought for individual rights like the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. In these cases, women did not only support the men, but were willing to fight along with them to gain the justice that they deserved.

Because of the rising importance of the suffrage movement, Reventlow wants men and women on his side. The ideas of the socialist women were growing stronger and the ideas of the prominent men were only addressed to the opulent. In 1919, a Speaker for the French Senatorial Commission concurred with the ideas of James, Crispi, and Reventlow, with a degrading and derogatory tone. “Rather than handling the ballot, the hands of women are meant to be kissed… ” The speaker is trying to say that women are given so much love and it is not necessary for them to acquire an unrealistic advantage when they already have been given much. Like the three men before him, this French man has acquired for himself a position of power and comfort in society. Like Count Reventlow, this French man is moving backwards. In the same year of this speech, the 19th Amendment of the US Constitution was submitted to the Congress for ratification. It said, “The United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex.” The world was moving forward in its ways and the French man maintains an archaic understanding of women. Although the speaker, in some ways praises the opposite sex, he negates the fact that their ideas would be necessary from a political standpoint.

However, when Mary Wollstonecraft wrote her Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) she vehemently ridiculed prevailing notions about women as helpless, charming, adornments in the household. Nevertheless, women themselves denied the fact that they should be give the right to vote. Mrs. Humphry Ward, a novelist and one of the founders of the Women’s National Anti-Suffrage League in 1889 announced candidly that women “contribute more precious elements to national life” and that women have “peculiar excellencies”. Mrs. Humphry Ward believes that childbearing and household work are the only duties of the female. She takes her husband’s name and thinks she is meant to be represented by her husband. She has confidence in the idea that the wife is meant to be the husband’s environment of tranquility, and not a political advisor who neglects the duties she was born with.

Ultimately, it can be deduced that the opposing parties of the Women’s Suffrage Movement were affluent and content men and women who were against viewing equality between both the sexes as an essential liberty. They believed that women belonged to their husbands; they were homemakers and peacemakers, and fighting for an individualistic cause would create and imbalance in society. They firmly believed that if given the vote, women would be incapable to make political and social decisions.

The women’s suffrage movement became a successful enterprise primarily because of the men & women who passionately fought for their beliefs. Many of the paramount women who fought for their beliefs of equality were born into the Pankhurst Family. The Pankhurst Family devotedly fought for their natural rights and the phrase “Deeds not Words”. Emmeline (the mother), Christabel, and Sylvia Pankhurst formed the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903. The WSPU was one of the most militant organizations that advocated “Deeds not words”. Emmeline Pankhurst stopped believing that moderate speeches was the way to achieve the vote and this later allowed them to violently protest against the unfair persecutions of the women’s suffrage movement.

The Pankhurst’s were arrested and jailed several times, went on hunger strikes and were brutally force-fed. These women debunked an archaic understanding of the oppression of women. They taught the working class woman to fend for themselves and they moved forward from tradition and an orthodox way of life. Another feminist would also agree with the actions of the Pankhurst women. Emily Wilding Davison became a martyr for the suffragette movement at the Epsom Derby. Davison joined the WSPU, and she, like the Pankhurst’s, fought militantly to achieve women’s suffrage and dedicated themselves towards the movement. She was also imprisoned many times, went on hunger strikes, and was force-fed. At the Epsom Derby in 1913, Davison tried to pull down the King George V’s horse, was trampled by the horse and died four days later in the hospital. She was influenced by the movement to perform this act, and her martyrdom allowed the feminist effort to proceed faster into gaining the vote for women. The Pankhurst’s and Davison remembered the socialist ideas; they remembered when Karl Marx and Frederick Engels said, during the Industrial Revolution that, “ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions… The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains.” They also remembered Samuel Smiles ideas of working hard to reach a higher destination in the ladder of success. He theorized, “Such reforms can only be effected by means of individual action, economy, self-denial.” Most importantly, they remembered John Locke, and his Enlightenment ideas when he said, “bad laws need not be obeyed.”

Clara Zetkin, a German socialist leader, reiterated the points that the Pankhurst family made. Zetkin gave women a desire to break away from male supremacy and said that a woman’s life was not limited to the confines of her home, but her ideas must be placed in government and other social aspects of life. She ardently said in 1907, “We socialists do not only demand women’s suffrage as a natural right with which women are born; we demand it as a social right.” She would disregard and oppose the ideas of her fellow German, Count Reventlow, and agree with the ideas of Rosa Luxemburg. Zetkin is yearning for equal opportunities for women like Anna Mozzoni, an Italian Feminist. In 1871, Mozzoni aggressively introduces the oppression of women by saying, “The woman question affirms more profoundly the roots of democracy, discredits the rule of force, advances women in the economic sphere, and weakens the power of traditional prejudices.” Mozzoni would say that giving women the right to vote would be for the betterment of society and will not lead to an unrealistic downfall; by doing this women can truly progress in society. She has a different view from that of Mrs. Humphrey Ward and the prominent men who believed in the same things Mrs. Ward believed in. Zetkin and Mozzoni are fighting for their voices to be heard, just the way the Pankhurst family militantly fought. In 1879 Mozzoni published her translation from English into Italian of On the Subjection of Women by John Stuart Mill.

John Stuart Mill was one of the first voices who were for the enfranchisement of women. Mill stated that society and its perception of gender must be reconstructed so that all humans, not one-half of them should be able to be considered as equals and have the same rights. Mill’s ethical system of Utilitarianism (greatest good for the greatest number) defended the emancipation of women. In his essay, he strongly describes why women are to be raised on a platform equal to that of men. “The moral regeneration of mankind will only really commence when the family is placed under the rule of equal justice, and when human beings begin to cultivate their strongest sympathy with those who are equal in rights.” His wife, Harriet Taylor Mill, who co-wrote The Subjection of Women, reiterated her husband’s ideas in her own essay. She wrote The Enfranchisement of Women and obviously stated that “Women have as good a claim as men have, in point of personal right, to the suffrage, or to any place in the jury-box, it would be difficult for any one to deny.” The visions of John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill contradict the ideologies of Mrs. Humphry Ward and Francesco Crispi. The belief that all women are placed in this world merely for the purpose of bearing children, and for the sole benefit of the man was discredited by the earnest people who believed that women’s rights were essential.

In 1920, the 19th Amendment of the US Constitution was passed and in 1928, three months before the death of Emmeline Pankhurst, English women got their right to vote. Women wanted a voice in the government and wished to overthrow the male dominance that was prevalent in society. The work of the suffragettes proved that women are citizens, and they accomplished the visions of Wollstonecraft & Condorcet who said that it was an insult to deny one-half of the population the rights and opportunities that were given to the other half. The suppression of women in society was beginning to end and the movement allowed women to achieve a right that was denied of them for years.

“Bad laws need not be obeyed.” John Locke justified the French Revolution with this statement. The woman’s suffrage movement was a visionary creation, which has now become a part of history. The people with power & wealth were obstacles that were jumped through by the supporters of the movement. The fight was ambitious and aggressive in the eyes of the opposition, but to the suffragettes, was a symbol of natural and social rights. It insisted that woman must be an absolute equal in the sight of men. The advocates for the cause of woman, ultimately shattered the views of the opposition to become a successful and triumphant enterprise that eventually lead to a fundamental change in government and society.

Source by Kirsten Ebenezer

Buffalo Turf Grass (also known as St Augustine grass in North America) is a warm season turf grass made very popular in Australia with the relatively new soft leaf Buffalo varieties such as Shademaster (in the 1980s) and Sir Walter Buffalo (in the 1990s). Just for a quick categorization: There are two (2) types of grasses, that is, cool season grasses and warm season turf grasses.

In the cool season grasses we commonly have rye and fescue grasses.

With the warm season grasses there are many including the different soft leaf Buffalo (St Augustine) grasses, Queensland Blue Couch (this is a totally different grass to your garden variety Green Couch turf grass), Couch / Green Couch (also known as Bermuda grass in North America), Kikuyu Turf, Zoysia and so on.

Buffalo and Queensland Blue Couch differ from all the other Warm Season Grasses in that they are built only with above ground runners known as Stolons. On the other hand, green couch, kikuyu and zoysia grasses are built with both above ground runners (Stolons) and below ground runners (Rhizomes).

Originally, Buffalo grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) was the old hard leaf variety. Back then, it was the only Buffalo variety available. However, since the 1970s, turf farmers have created more desirable Buffalo turf grasses. These varieties including Sir Walter (which is the best Australian bred Buffalo) have a softer leaf and are more tolerant of shade than the other turf grasses.

In our experience as Lawn Care contractors, we believe Sir Walter Buffalo stands “head and shoulders” above all the other Buffalo varieties due to its tolerance of herbicide sprays and its superior green colour in Winter.

When spraying for broadleaf weeds (including clover, bindii, dandelions, etc) in Buffalo turf you need to use the selective herbicide with the main Active Constituents being 200g/L Bromoxynil and 200g/L MCPA.

The Australian retail products for this selective herbicide include Chemspray’s Bin-Die and Searle’s Buffalo Master Selective Herbicide. If you are looking for a product similar to these you need to compare them based on the Active Constituents of the product. You will notice that the labels of these products will say they are not suitable for use on the ST buffalo varieties including ST26, ST85 and ST91 buffalo. Certainly, you need to exercise caution when dealing with these varieties.

Any selective herbicides (suitable for turf grasses) which contain Dicamba as part of the Active Constituent should not be used on Buffalo Turf. Buffalo Turf suffers from bad leaf burn to death if sprayed with Dicamba based herbicides.

Augustine-Lawn&id=4935375″>Source by Gerry Faehrmann

The question of how to restore the finish on kitchen oak cabinets has been raised several times in some forums where I participate. There really is no one best answer for this question as the final decision lies with your personal taste and interest. What I present below is only my view based on my experience and readings on the subject matter.

The option you choose to restore the finish depends on the kind of finish you have. It also depends on the age of the cabinets. For example, you might even have to sand them and apply lacquer.

If you do not want to change the color of the cabinets then you might not have to refinish them. If you are thinking of using some oil product just be careful not to use oils that will attract grime and dust and fail to offer a long-term solution. Alternatively you can just use a rub-on finish or method and water. The latter doesn’t have a negative effect on the oak wood.

If the cabinets have some lacquer that has flaked off like splinters on the grain of the wood or one of the cabinets have splintered effect then you will have to sand to bare wood and apply a new finish like Danish oil. Sanding requires you to be patient but it is well worth it.

Another suggestion to the question on how to restore the finish on kitchen oak cabinets is to slightly sand and re-coat over what is already there. But in this case I suggest you start with a sample area where it is not visible to everyone.

Use this area as a test and if you are happy with the results then you can do the whole kitchen oak cabinets. As you test the sample area watch out for peeling or finish clumping like oil on water. If these happen then you should consider something else.

Oak-Cabinets&id=1934245″>Source by Rod Jokei

From a shoestring budget to a relatively extravagant lifestyle it depends entirely on the sailors, their financial situation at the time, and a number of important factors that have to be taken into consideration.

Cruisers come in many different categories…

• Ones who have sold up to sail, and have some savings!

• Sailors who have retired, possibly with pensions they will live on!

• Those that have an income or are able to work from a yacht!

• Many who have to take breaks to build up the ‘kitty!’

• The lucky ones who have found alternative ways ‘to live the dream!’

These are some of the questions that need to be answered…

• Are you able to handle maintenance and basic repairs yourself?

• Is it likely your boat will need a haul out in the future, when is it due for the next antifoul; will you do it and what about emergencies?

• Will you be looking at flights back to your home or family?

• Do you like to dine out at times or go on sightseeing tours?

• Are you going to spend time in marinas or anchorages?

• What about other living expenses like fuel and communications?

It comes back to desire. If you really want to go cruising your budget whatever it may be will fit into place, you will make sacrifices and improvise so you can live your desired lifestyle.

Low budget cruisers can live on small fixed incomes such as a pension, living extremely simply with none of life’s luxuries. It is the freedom and pleasure of the cruising life that give them satisfaction.

For others a reasonable budget can range between $15,000 and $30,000 a year. It means focusing on good money management, preventive maintenance and being true to your values.

Cruising Food Budget:

Food is individual and costs vary between cold and warm climates and coastal or off shore sailing. If you have good storage some things can be bought in bulk or even shared between several other sailors. Shop where the locals shop it’s always cheaper than the smaller stores on the tourist strips. Meat keeps better and is tender when vacuum packed.

At some islands you can exchange goods for fruit, vegetables and seafood’s. For example at Minerva Reef on the way to Tonga we swapped cans of beer for whole lobsters. Buy fruit and veggies that are in season at markets and long life vegetables like potatoes, pumpkins, onions and garlic can be bought in a bigger supply.

If you’re lucky to catch a few fish it’s a great supplement for meat that may be expensive in some areas.

One of the ‘must haves’ in the galley is a pressure cooker. It saves time, money and in the tropics is so fast in cooking it keeps the heat down in the cabin. A pressure cooker makes a great pot roast, can turn cheaper cuts of meat into tender and savory meals. Try baking bread in it if you don’t have an oven.

Eating Out:

Dining out and entertainment can vary enormously depending on sailors and just where you happen to be. If you go out for lunches, or a ‘take away’ that you can eat down on a beach with a bottle of wine it is far cheaper.

In a different country part of the fun of cruising is tasting the local cuisine. Some countries are fantastic with cafes and delicious meals and it doesn’t break the budget. With other places you may need to budget more money for eating out!

The cost of fuel:

The best part of the cruising budget is the wind is free, and we are sailors so cruisers prefer to use their engine as little as possible. Entering and departing anchorages or at times marinas there is minimal use of fuel.

If coastal cruising and its necessary to make a destination before night fall or against current and wind the motor can be used to get in before dark.

My diesel inboard motor runs on the smell of an oily rag. The other two fuels we have to take into account are dinghy fuel and cooking gas, neither should put much of a dent in the budget.

When planning your fuel cost take into account the distance you are traveling, if you are going blue water sailing consider the cost of fuel in the areas you travel.

Based on cruisers I’ve talked to your total fuel budget can range from $10 to $50 a month, depending on if most of the time you spend sailing or at anchor.

Communication:

Mobile phones and the internet for most of us are a necessary part of living and keeping in touch. Prepaid phone cards help you keep your call in a set budget and that too depends on the individual it can be $20 to $50 a month.

Satellite phones will keep you in touch anywhere in the world and have many added features… look at the cost and build it into your cruising budget! There are internet cafe’s all around the world if you don’t have the facilities on board.

There is also Sail Mail for off shore sailors with SSB radio, it can be hooked up to your computer and costs around $200 per month.

Clothes Budget:

This depends where you sail; the tropics or a colder climate. In the tropics minimal clothes are needed and washing and drying them is easier. Winter woolies and heavy fleecy clothes cost more and are harder to wash and dry.

It’s often better to wash and dry them ashore in a washing machine and a dryer; they do not dry very well when washed in salt water. So laundry cost will have to be put into the cruising budget.

Ones own style and values and how often there are shore trips and what kind of entertainment is enjoyed will also dictate the type and cost of clothes. I personal like to have some shore clothes set aside and ready to go! Sailing clothes can sometimes look creased or get stains from your last meal tossed on them when you miss your mouth hitting a wave. So the cost? This is as individual as it is on land!

Entertainment:

Travel a few hundred miles or over seas and part of the enjoyment is getting out there and exploring the sites, natural wonders, history and all that the culture has to offer. Cruising budgets can be guess’termated according to the destination

A lot can be seen free; walking, hiking, snorkeling or scuba diving, and beachcombing. Some museums and cultural events can be free. Cinemas and local café’s need not break the budget, but a good concert may cost us a little extra.

Entertainment aboard is different between cruisers. Most read, listen to tapes and CD’s also watch DVD’s, there are also electronic games and board games and cards.

None of these things will cost much and books, games and DVD’s can be swapped between sailors; marina laundries are notorious for have a large range of books left for the next person to read. Hobbies like writing journals of the places traveled, or painting is enjoyable too. Some play musical instruments and sing… great at pot-luck parties or bar-b-que’s on the beach it’s entertainment for everyone!

Medical – Dental – Optical:

This varies in different countries and the individual’s health. In Australia there’s Bulk Billing Medical Centers which are free and dentists if you are on a pension and join the free dental waiting list.

Magnifying glasses can be bought at a chemist for reading. That doesn’t discount going to an optician.

Health Insurance can be a protection in cases of emergencies, some have it, some don’t; this is no different to when you’re on land.

Other Costs… you may have to consider things like fishing licenses, prescriptions and souvenirs and flights home. These things are all individual and things like Customs and Immigration fees for off shore travel must be considered.

Some cruisers can live on $5,000 a year if an extremely frugal cruiser with no luxuries. Others say they live on around $10,000 a year on a pretty strict cruising budget and from there it can increase according to values and the way one likes to live.

You can spend what ever you have and live extremely well when the budget reaches $20,000 to $30,000 a year. For most people they can cruise for less than they can live on land.

A lot of stuff to think about!! A lot to calculate and weigh up when looking at your cruising budget! And good news! You won’t have mortgage payments or rent, electricity bills, car payments and fuel for your car and all the land based costs that eat into your finances very heavily.

The other big bonus is your vacations and travel, which are endless are all taken care of too! No hotel or transport to pay for!

Source by Christine Couch

One of the biggest responsibilities you have as a parent is choosing the right medical and dental care providers for your kids. While it may seem as if the easiest way to handle things is to pick the first professionals you run across, you owe your children more than that. You should take the time to screen different professionals until you find the right professionals to care for them. For example, a pediatric dentist is the best professional to care for your children’s teeth and gums.

It doesn’t matter how old your children are, as long as they are under the age of 19 (in some cases 21), they can benefit from being seen and treated by a pediatric dentist. This professional has undergone additional training so that they can provide the best quality dental care for children and young adults. It is important that you take your children to see this type of professional at least six months after they get their first tooth. Even if you haven’t taken them to this type of professional before, there is nothing wrong with doing so now. The sooner you take them to this professional, the easier it will be for you to prevent them from developing any anxieties and fears. Keep in mind that it is much easier to prevent issues and phobias than it is to try and dispel them later on; especially if it is from a care provider.

Finding a good pediatric dentist to care for your children’s teeth and gums throughout their childhood and teenage years is something that you take seriously. In order to improve your chances of finding the best professional, you may need to research and contact several professionals. Ask them if they are accepting new patients. Find out what type of dental care they provide to their patients. Find out what licenses and credentials they hold. Go online and verify their credentials and look for reviews, praises and complaints that may exist for these professionals. Depending on what your results are, you may need to also schedule an appointment with them, so you can better determine whether or not they will be the best candidate to care for your children’s oral health. Don’t assume that just because everything looks good on paper that any particular professional is a good fit. You need to go to their practice, inspect the facilities and meet with them and the other staff members. You need to make sure that your children are going to be cared for in an environment in which they feel calm, comfortable, safe and relaxed.

The more effort you put into choosing a good pediatric dentist for your kids, the better you will be able to instill in them the importance of practicing and keeping good dental hygiene. You are also instilling in them the importance of having regular checkups and treatments. By doing your part, you can provide them with the foundation they need to be responsible about their dental health.

Source by Aloysius Aucoin

Nestling in the lap of enchanting terrain, Munnar is one of the most beautiful hill stations in Kerala. Snuggled in the peaceful surroundings, the hill station offers a spectacular view of low-flying clouds, misty valleys and cascading waterfalls.

Major Tourist Attraction in Munnar

Anaimudi Peak

Anaimudi Peak is proud to be the highest peak in south India. Adventure lovers can explore the fascinating trekking routes and enjoy campaigning at an altitude of 2700 m to get a glimpse of picturesque view of lofty hilly terrains. It is a heaven for nature enthusiasts to relax in the tranquil environ away from hustle and bustle of busy cities.

Pothamedu

The splendour of bountiful nature awaits the travel buffs across the globe. Pothamedu offers a panoramic view of sprawling coffee, tea and cardamom plantations. Enjoy the mountain walk and trekking amidst the lush green hilly areas to make your Munnar tour more memorable.

Devikulam

Devikulam, is a destination for solace, blessed with sprawling velvet green lawns and serene ambiance. Spot some exotic flora and fauna species here. Rejuvenate your mind and soul in the bracing cool environ to feel refreshed. Feast your eyes with a majestic view of tranquil Sita Devi Lake. The scenic charm of the place makes it an idol spot for picnickers.

Evarikulam National Park

Evarikulam National Park, spread in an area of 97 sq km, is tucked at a distance of 16 km from Munnar. The park is a great delight for wildlife enthusiasts to spot some exotic species of fauna such as lion-tailed macaque, elephants, Nilgiri tahr and many more.

Kuthumkal Waterfalls

Kuttumkal waterfalls is also one of the major tourist attractions in Munnar. The foggy waterfall cascades from scintillating height which fascinates every visitor.

Source by Nisha Kaur

It is most likely that the recovery of a tooth extraction will only take a couple of days, but there are some instructions that will lower the risk for post-operative issues (like the so-called Dry Socket) and may help on the road to recovery.

Always follow the instructions of your dentist to avoid slight or even serious problems, so: Be a good patient and pay attention to your dentist.

Here are some DO’s and DON’Ts for your after-care process:

  • Bite down hard on the moist cotton gauze the dentist placed over the extraction wound for 30-45 minutes to support a solid blood clot to form. At home a wet tea bag can serve as a replacement. If it keeps bleeding contact the dentist.
  • While the mouth is still numb because of the local anaesthesia, be very careful not to bite or burn the lip, the inside of your cheeks or your tongue.
  • Do not touch the wound with the fingers to not infect the wound with bacteria that might be on your hands.
  • Don’t rub the wound with the tongue or suck on the tooth socket, this may release the clot of blood.
  • Try to relax after the extraction. Lie down, but put a pillow under the head, lying flat may extend the bleeding.
  • Use an ice pack on the outside of your cheek in the area of the extraction for the first 24 hours to keep the swelling at a minimum. Some patients find it pleasant to melt an ice cube in the mouth to cool the inside as well.

Most important: do not smoke or drink alcohol for at least 24 hours after the procedure. Nicotine can break down the blood clot and cause a wound healing disorder like the painful “Dry Socket”, while consuming alcohol will dilute your blood and hence might increase the chance of bleeding. Even if you follow all advices, problems might still occur. Never hesitate to contact your dentist if you encounter too much bleeding or pain.

Source by Jorn Matijsen

Becoming a cosmetic dentist will take many years of schooling. There is much to learn in this field and it will take time to learn what is needed. Included in the years of study will be many hours of hands on training to make sure that each student has seen everything there is to see and will have experience once they go out into the real world looking for employment. The field of dentistry is a very complex field and this is not the career field for everyone. For those who are dedicated and who put the time in, the field of dentistry can be very rewarding.

The title of cosmetic dentist is one that dentists, once they are out in the working world, give to themselves. There is no specialty during dental school where a student can take certain courses to qualify to be a cosmetic dentist. The title of cosmetic dentist is made up of different procedures that are all lumped together. Before any student can even begin to decide what they would like to specialize in, a student first needs to choose a college and obtain their four year degree. Some dental schools will only require a two year degree but most require a four year degree.

After finishing up a four year degree, a student who wishes to continue on to dental school will then apply for dental school. In dental school, students will choose either general dentistry or they will choose a specialty. Depending on which option is chosen, that will determine the length of time that a student is in school. Students who choose a specialty will spend more time in dental school because there will be more in depth subjects to cover and learn.

Once a student graduates from dental school, they will be able to pursue employment. Once a student has become a dentist and begins working, they will then be able to perform the tasks of a cosmetic dentist. A cosmetic dentist performs tasks that improve the look of a person’s teeth, gums, or bite and many of these procedures are performed daily at every dental office. It does take many years to become a dentist but for those who put in the time and the effort to learn what is being taught, they will excel in their craft and help many people over the course of their careers. Dentistry can be a rewarding career path for the right person.

Source by Chris J. Phillips

Early records of strength training date back to 3600 BC when Chinese emperors made their subjects exercise daily (Webster 1976). During the Chou Dynasty subjects were required to pass weight- lifting tests before entering the military. There is large amount of evidence that indicates weight training was part of life in ancient Greece and India. In fact, the Greeks built numerous sculptures of people lifting stone weights.

Numerous systems of training have been proposed over the years. The accumulation of experience and different philosophies has led us to the current training methods utilized today. Keep in mind; many authorities have varied greatly from the original purpose of strength and conditioning. Hard work and dedication formed the foundation of earlier training methods. Today the opposite has occurred in numerous settings as easy work and quick fixes form the foundation of most people’s regimens.

During the 16th century in Europe books on weight training began to surface. Sir Thomas Elyot’s book on the topic was published in England in 1531. Joachim Camerius, a lecturer at Leipzig University, wrote several books in 1544 recommending that weight training should be a key activity offered in the model school. John Paugh published a book in 1728 titled A Physiological, Theoretic and Practical Treatise on the Utility of Muscular Exercise for Restoring the Power to the limbs, which pointed out the benefits offered by weight training for rehab purposes. In the 1860’s, Archibald Maclaren, devised the first formal system of physical training with dumbbells and barbells for the British Army.

The showmen and strongman entertainers of the 19th Century heavily contributed to methods used today in the fitness and Sports Conditioning industry. From extensive research iron game historian David Webster credits Italian circus and fairground performer, Felice Napoli as the one who popularized strongman performances on an international scale. Disciples of Napoli include Professor Attila (Louis Durlacher) and Eugen Sandow (Frederick Muller). Attila became well known and he attracted some of the world’s most well known physical culturists and many rulers of Europe. His list of students included King George of Greece, King Edward of England, Crown Prince Frederick who became King Haakon of Norway, the six children of King Christian of Denmark, the Queen Mother Alexandra of England, Princess Dagmar (Empress of Russia and mother of Tsar Nicholas), and the Duchess of Cumberland.

At the time training the wealthy was a much respected occupation. We have what we call personal trainers today. The current protocols used by the majority of today’s trainers are a far cry from the original teachings and benefits provided by trainers. The fame and notoriety of trainers of those days was a result of the public displays of extraordinary physical feats. These events were often attended by royalty and were highly acclaimed for their promotion of physical well-being.

Eugen Sandow, born in Koningsberg in East Russia in 1867, was recruited for his teachings by presidents and rulers from around the world. Nine kings and queens and many princes of Europe, as well as US presidents William Taft and Woodrow Wilson endorsed Sandow’s book Life is Movement. Sandow was a successful strongman as well as a promoter of formal fitness and health management. He emphasized that physical education and sport should be an integral part of the school system. He also toured the world lecturing and promoting physical culture as a means of improving the quality of life.

Most authorities recognize Sandow, as one of the most important figures in the history of fitness, with the history of his work revealing that the modern phenomenon of science based fitness training is not a novel invention. Sandow promoted the importance of strength and skill as being the cornerstone of fitness. A half a century later Dr Kenneth Cooper proposed that being fit was primarily dependent on aerobic conditioning. Approximately 25 years later the important role of strength training has once again been recognized by the academia.

In Russia during the same period Vladislav Krayevsky founded the St Petersburg Amateur Weightlifting Society (1885). Many respected scientists, athletes; artists became his students, including famous strongman George Hackenschmidt, who credited Krayevsky for teaching him all he knew. Hackenschmidt mentioned in his book The Way To Live that some of the world’s strongest men of the era, including Sandow were trained using Krayevsky’s system.

Krayevsky’s work and the popularity of his students had a major effect on weightlifting in Russia. Not only was he a renowned teacher, but he also achieved significant numbers in barbell lifts himself. He was the president of the jury at the first world championships in Vienna in 1898.

Krayevsky wrote two of his fundamental works during the period of 1896-1899. The writings were titled The Catechism of Health-Rules for Athletes and The Development of Physical Strength with Kettlebells and without Kettlebells. The Catechism of Health-Rules for Athletes was sent to press December 9th 1899, but was never published and is now preserved in manuscript form. His other book was published in 1900 and reprinted three times (1902, 1909, 1916) after his death (1901).

Krayevsky was well studied on the history of physical culture and all forms of gymnastics. He was knowledgeable about Swedish gymnastics and noted its therapeutic benefits, but his concern with the lack of scientific data of the Swedish system led him to recruit experimentalists to research it.

Many of Krayevsky’s recommendations are still used today. His recommendations include medical control of an athlete’s health, consistent training and varying load patterns, full spectrum physical development, psychological development and avoidance of smoking and alcohol.

The early strength pioneers developed numerous devices in regards to strength training including cable machines, kettlebells, barbells, dumbbells, odd-shaped bars, thick grip bars, weighted boots, isolation machines and various throwing devices. Yet 50 years later there are numerous people who claim to have invented this machinery. In today’s industry there are many systems and people promoting their new systems, which are not really new at all.

The development of different scientific and educational cultures split the West and East as their promotion of physical activity was vaguely different. During the years following the World Wars Russia and Europe still continued to promote various elements of physical strength, power and skill while the West primarily promoted aerobics. Kenneth Cooper’s book Aerobics was popular at the time as well as Swedish endurance exercise research. According to Cooper and the Swedish researchers cardiac and general health depended primarily on prolonged endurance work. Supporters of the endurance doctrine heavily protested strength training. Cooper told the world strength training promoted a beautiful body but did nothing for health.

During the same period that the aerobics craze was running wild in the West Russians and Eastern Europeans accumulated extensive international information on strength and sports training while developing comprehensive educational programs to promote their findings. Most schools offered weightlifting and within a few decades there were approximately 1 million weightlifters in the USSR. Strength training became a key element in all sports training programs in the USSR while the attitude in the West was that weight training would slow athletes down and limit their range of motion. Consequently Russia dominated the Olympic Games, especially in Olympic Weightlifting, at the same time the aerobic doctrine became gospel in the West.

The Russian dominance has often been attributed to the use of anabolic-androgenic drugs, but the sporting use of these drugs was actually introduced in by the West first. It is probably more accurate to say that the Eastern nations dominated due to their special strength science and understanding of comprehensive sports conditioning. On the topic of drug usage no one uses more drugs than Pro bodybuilders, which are predominantly Americans.

In the West today the majority of gyms, trainers, academia and coaches are still ill informed when it comes to fitness and Sports Conditioning. The aerobic endurance crazes still dominates in most cases, yet this makes up a minor portion of fitness. All one needs to do is study the science and abundant evidence that supports the numerous health and fitness benefits of a proper strength-training program to realize its importance.

References

Siff, M.C (2000) Supertraining. Mel Siff.

Copyright 2005 Jamie Hale

Source by Jamie Hale

Your teeth may be at risk. Did you know that consuming acidic foods and drinks can lead to acid erosion of your teeth? Once softened by acid exposure, your tooth enamel becomes weakened and can be more easily worn away, even by just brushing your teeth! If you tend to grind your teeth at night, you can quickly do some serious damage.

Often the first sign of this problem is increased sensitivity to cold air or liquids. Bouts of acid exposure will open up the pores on your teeth, and any areas of dentin exposure, such as root surfaces, can become very sensitive.

Teeth softened by acid are much more vulnerable to decay. That can mean a lot of extensive dental treatment.

Serious damage from acid doesn’t happen with a single exposure, and your teeth have some capacity to recover (re-mineralize). However, many repeated exposures can lead to severe, irreversible destruction of your teeth.

This is HUGE problem. I’m very alarmed by how much acid erosion and the resulting tooth sensitivity I’m seeing.

And most people have absolutely NO IDEA that it’s happening to them.

This is a Real Threat…

In the past few years, I have seen more and more patients who are presenting with this problem. One patient in particular, she was a new patient to my practice. Her teeth were worn right down to their gum line! Ouch! I also noticed that many younger adults who consume large quantities of cola drinks and their teeth were being decimated by tooth decay (more on that issue later).

This problem of acid erosion isn’t just age specific. I see a LOT of it in all ages, and it seems to be getting worse every year. Sure, people are living longer and keeping their natural teeth. Yet, that still doesn’t explain all the damage I’m seeing.

Beware the acid bombs!

A key factor in this “epidemic” of acid damage is our modern diet. Many of the foods and drinks that we consume contain highly elevated levels of acid.

Acids commonly added to our food include citric acid, acetic acid (vinegar), and phosphoric acid – all of which can significantly harm your enamel. So make sure you read the ingredients label.

Why are these acids being added?

In most cases, to assist in preservation. It’s widespread within the food industry.

Benzoic acid and its salt forms (sodium benzoate, potassium benzoate, etc.) are amongst the most widely used food preservative in the world. It’s cheap and very effective. Prolonged shelf life translates into higher profits. In the food industry, it is used in wide range of items from jams, juices and salad dressings to ice cream, soft drinks and candies. It’s also used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and as a rust inhibitor in anti-freeze.

Being weakly acidic, benzoic acid won’t harm your enamel directly. This chemical’s preservative effect is pH dependent – it works best in a low pH (acidic) environment. Other strong acids are being added to food and beverage products to establish a low enough pH for this preservative to work. Many food substances, such as soft drinks, ice cream, and candies, are being acidified (juiced up) this way. That’s the big, hidden acid spike many of us are being hit with!

On a further note, benzoic acid can combine with ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

to form benzene – a known carcinogen. Vitamin C is often added to food or beverage products as an anti-oxidant. These two ingredients are still being used together in a wide range of beverages throughout the World (fortunately banned in North America). Another good reason to read those ingredient labels.

Watch out for the Double Dose!

A high sugar and strong acid combo make some of these food and beverages particularly devastating for your teeth. Bacteria in your mouth can aggressively metabolize any available sugar to produce lactic acid. That means your teeth will be exposed to even more acid. That’s why a lot of children have re occurring decay. They constantly got hit with a double dose of acid from all the cola drinks they drink!

Diet drinks may be marginally easier on your teeth, but some sugar substitutes (aspartame) can add an extra punch to the acid attack on our bodies.

More than Just Our Teeth…

The harm from overexposure to acid only begins with our teeth. These synthetic “acid bombs” we’re consuming can alter our internal chemistry and dramatically affect our overall health.

Our bodies will attempt to compensate for this excess dietary acid, but at a price. Our alkaline reserves are gradually being depleted, and as that happens, we start suffering from the many consequences of chronic acidosis.

The following are some of the dangerous effects of chronic acidosis…

* Minerals (mainly calcium) are leeched from our organs and bones to neutralize the excess acid. As calcium is leeched from our bones, we can eventually suffer from osteoporosis.

* Our kidneys are overburdened by the acid buildup and experience higher incidence of kidney stones.

* Digestion suffers because excess systemic acid can inhibit the production of stomach acid as well as the alkalizing salts from the gall bladder and pancreas. We’re left with poorly digested, acidic food in our intestine that brings on cramping, bloating and risk of intestinal infections.

* Capillary blood flow slows down and the removal of acid waste on a cellular level is blocked, increasing the effects of cellular aging and raising the risk of cellular transmutation (cancer).

* Acid accumulation in the pancreas interferes with insulin production, leading to diabetes.

* Our energy levels drop off and we suffer from chronic fatigue.

* Fat accumulates around our vital organs (to protect them) and we put on extra weight.

Chronic acidosis has been cited as the hidden but deadly disease that’s the primary cause of many of the serious ailments we suffer from. Dr. Leigh Connealy states “Acidosis literally destroys the body from the inside out, paving the way for disease to take over.

Watch Out for These Acidic Foods!

Soft drinks (including lemon iced-tea)

Sports drinks – Gatorade, Powerade, etc.

Energy Drinks – Red Bull, Full Throttle, etc.

Citrus Fruits – lemons, limes, grapefruit, etc.

Fruit salad

Fruit juices – lemonade, grapefruit, orange, apple, cranberry, etc.

Chewable Vitamin C (never suck on them)

Candies (particularly sour candies)

Vinegar

Vinegar-based products such as salad dressing and ketchup

White or red wine

The Bottom Line: Loss of enamel is progressive. If left to advance, your teeth may become severely compromised.

What You Can Do:

* Be alarmed. Take this seriously and don’t let your teeth become casualties in the food wars. Pay attention to ingredients and start limiting your exposure to acidic food and beverages.

* Get real. Call junk food it what it is, not a “special treat” that you’ve earned. Avoid associating “comfort” with bad food choices. Try choosing healthy snack alternatives such as nuts and raw veggies

* Stop the pop! Find healthy alternatives, such as mineral water. If you do indulge, limit the frequency, time length, and concentration of acid exposure.

* Cut out the candy. Tame your sweet tooth before addiction consumes you. Sour candies, being dosed up with citric, malic, and/or tartaric acids, are extra nasty.

* Limit your exposure time. Eating or drinking something slowly throughout the day will do more harm than one big exposure.

* Water your juices down. Many juices have concentrated sugar and acid content, to the point that they cannot even quench your thirst. Consider adding at least half water (2/3 is my preference). Stay away from lemon iced-tea.

* Good Hygiene. Maintain brushing & flossing habits. Be sure to use fluoridated toothpaste to help strengthen your teeth. Avoid brushing your teeth immediately after consuming acidic foods or drinks, as this is when enamel is at its softest and most likely to be damaged. Simply rinse with water instead.

* We can help. Stay healthy and keep your teeth for life by keeping up your hygiene visits. We’ll keep tabs on acid damage. If the damage is already significant, we can help restore & protect the affected teeth with options such as bonding, porcelain veneers, or crowns.

Source by Greg Prior, D.D.S.

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