Are there parts of your self-concept with which you aren’t happy? For instance, do you expect to be rejected by others? Do you evaluate your own performance less favorably than others? Do you feel threatened by people you view as superior in some way? If you answered yes to these questions, it is possible you have an inferiority complex.

Alfred Adler (1870-1937), psychologist and founder of the school of Individual Psychology, coined the term “inferiority complex,” which he described as feelings of lack of worth. If you have this problem, here are 11 ways to overcome your lack of self-confidence, your sense of being inadequate, and your feeling of inferiority:

1. If your inferiority stems from the company you keep, stop associating with all those who make you feel small, inadequate or insecure of your place and position.

2. If the causes of your feeling of inferiority are your tasks at work or at social functions, stop accepting them. Know your limitations and the extent of your abilities. Refuse to become involved in anything that you cannot follow through successfully just because it puts you in the limelight for a while.

3. If people with names or titles make you feel small, self-conscious and insignificant avoid close contact with them. Why play “second fiddle” to them? Associate with those who come nearer to your standards and those who make you feel comfortable.

4. Place a price on yourself, on your knowledge, ability, dignity and self-respect. Refuse to serve as a mat for others to walk upon. Speak up. Voice your displeasure, your likes or dislikes. Do it again and again and before long your fear of speaking up and your feeling of inferiority will be gone.

5. It is commendable to seek higher levels but only when you have prepared yourself and not at the expense of your self-esteem and self-confidence.

6. If you want to get rid of your feeling of inferiority stay within your bounds and do not overreach yourself. Find out what you do best, work diligently at it until you excel at it and then capitalize upon it.

7. Sell yourself on the fact that you are as good, as capable, as important and even better in some respects, as those with whom you usually associate.

8. If your inferiority stems from oversensitivity or self-consciousness it may be due to the fact that you take yourself too seriously. Do not assume that people have you on their minds and talk constantly about you. This is not the case. Rid yourself of these thoughts and your self-consciousness will gradually disappear.

9. If you feel you are not liked or wanted or welcomed when you come in company with certain people, it may be due to the fact that you expect too much. Perhaps you wear your heart on your sleeve and feel hurt when people fail to notice it.

10. If you intensely dislike what you are doing but keep at it halfheartedly because you are afraid to make a change you are doing an injustice to others and are unfair to yourself. Make the necessary changes.

11. If you have been too willing to take “second best”; if you are forever apologizing for living or for taking up room, how can you expect others to value you as a person? You have definite capabilities which you and you alone can develop and capitalize upon.

If there are things you always wanted to do but somehow never got around to them. Get started on them – now! Work at them – now! It may not be easy, but go on just the same.

By trying over and over again, your sense of inadequacy will vanish and your feeling of inferiority will disappear.

Your self-concept is often shaped by those around you and affects how you view yourself in relation to other people. If you feel inferior to others, use these 11 methods to change your self-concept. Improve your feeling of self-worth. Gain confidence in interacting with others. Conquer your feeling of inferiority.

“Self-love, my liege, is not so vile a sin as self-neglecting.”

–Shakespeare, King Henry V

© Copyright 2008 Rosa Chillis – All rights reserved.

By Rosa Chillis

Source by Rosa Chillis

Throughout the night and into the early morning the chubby rich man dreamed of fresh palm wine. In his sleep, he heard the peculiar grating sound – nails mixed with aluminum in a tool box – made as the palm wine tapper rode his bicycle en route to the palm trees.

Deep in sleep he dreamed of how, when he intercepted the wine tapper on his way to the palm tree, he would instruct him to deliver a fresh pot of palm wine, which the tapper was guaranteed to have by the time he came back.

Soon afterwards a flash of realism interrupted his optimism. What if the palm wine tapper had committed the morning’s fresh palm wine to another drinker?

Over his closed eyes a scornful smile emerged to greet a witty thought: How society tends to favor the words of the rich over those of the poor, a phenomenon which to his suspicious mind makes the poor less vocal but more thoughtful.

Ferdinand was the wine tapper’s name, yet everybody in the village, adults and children alike, called him Otenkwu, ‘the man who taps the palm tree.’

On a hunch of impending loss, the prospect of fresh palm wine slipping away – a loss known only to palm wine lovers – the rich man jerked up from the bed. Because the village air had not arrived that night, he had been sleeping with no shirt. He tied a double folded wrapper around his waist, over his boxers, groped with his toes to find his slippers and then went out the door, into the front yard.

The last rooster was crowing as he reached the double iron gates guarding the compound. He pulled the right side open and walked a pace further, standing beside the dirt road. His eyes first looked down the road in search of the wine tapper. If the tapper had gone past his house, he must have turned the corner, shielded by other village buildings erected everywhere around the winding narrow path.

Though the rich man was chubby, he believed he could run if the need arose. He could run down the road, up to a reasonable distance, to search for the wine tapper. On the other hand, he could wait, hoping the wine tapper was running late and was yet to reach his house. The chubby rich man thought as he waited.

What if Ferdinand took another path, or had walked through the bush, not merely to tap other palm trees but to avoid men like him who want palm wine ordered before the tappers make it safely to the ground? ‘Quite a few of them,’ mused the chubby man, ‘some of the finest wine tappers have fallen to their death, distracted while thinking how to appease rich village drunks. Is the love of palm wine the root of all evil?’

Devoid of immediate action, the rich man untied his wrapper and tied it back, now only slightly tighter, with a knot on the right side of the waist. After that he found his pot belly and gave the dumb fat a squeeze.

The pain of the squeeze provoked more soul-searching. If the tapper had ridden past the house, he would have heard, even in his sleep, the sound of his bicycle.

There is a possibility, thought the chubby rich man, that a bicycle that made such a sound was sick and likely to break down at any time, and Ferdinand might not have saved enough to afford a repair. So maybe he had resorted to shortcuts, through the bush path.

Lost in thought and near to desperation, the chubby man did not realize when the tapper pulled close to him and set both feet on the ground. He was a wiry man with a narrow chest, a pair of long sticks for legs, and a large head into which were sunk two deeply-set eyes.

Taken aback at his arrival, the rich man found his pot belly and again squeezed a wall of solid dumb fat.

‘What are you doing in the middle of the road at this hour; don’t those eyes of yours ever sleep?’

‘What are you doing riding your bicycle before the last rooster crows; don’t you ever rest?’

The tapper lifted his foot from the ground to the pedal, and the rich man quickly stretched an arm to restrain the left bicycle handle.

‘What troubles your soul so early in the morning?’ the tapper asked.

‘A calabash of palm wine, as it is, fresh from the palm tree.’

‘You don’t have any space left to pour the palm wine,’ said the wine tapper as he glanced at a pregnant belly. ‘You store all your riches in your belly, don’t you?’

It wasn’t the first time the chubby man had heard comments about his girth, and he was ready for a response.

‘You poor squirrel, when are you going to enjoy the sweat of your labor? Stop disturbing the neighborhood with that squeaking bicycle of yours. Look at you, wasted and wiry!’

Fighting before climbing a palm tree is always a bad omen, and Ferdinand was quick to stop an escalation. He pried the bicycle handle away from the rich man’s grip and actually began to pedal, to get away.

‘Don’t forget,’ cried the rich man. ‘My fresh calabash of palm wine!’

‘Vultures are circling overhead,’ the palm wine tapper responded, ‘waiting on you to either throw up or expel the contents of your belly.’

‘May you fall head first from the palm tree!’ screamed the fat man as he walked back to his house.

Later that morning, just before the sun had begun to reach the village, at a makeshift breakfast table in a backyard, six roasted yams were set on a flat plate. Beside the yams was a worn-out white metal bowl which contained a mixture of pepper, palm oil and salt.

In a low wooden chair beside the breakfast table, the rich man sat crouched over the roasted yams. He still wore his folded wrapper. As he shifted his trunk sideways, the chair squeaked like a dead tree falling.

A yard away, the servant who set up the breakfast stood like a statue ready to take more orders.

Palm wine – Ferdinand?’ The rich man remembered, not knowing if the words came out of his lips. ‘Did the palm wine get here yet? Has Ferdinand got back?’ he began to fume at the servant.

‘Sir… ‘ the servant said, and then hesitated for a few seconds while he listened to the various village sounds.

Stretching out his right ear like a rubber band, he declared, ‘I hear the bicycle of the man who taps the palm tree.’

Palm-Wine-Tapper&id=9717855″>Source by Anselm Anyoha

As exotic hardwood floors continue to gain in popularity, Amendoim is sprouting up as a popular hardwood flooring option. But what is it exactly, and where does it come from?

Amendoim is commonly referred to as Brazilian Oak, although another species, Tauari, is also called Brazilian Oak, which has lead to a great deal of confusion among the flooring industry. It is grown in Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay, and is also used to make fine furniture because it sands and shapes very well compared to other hardwoods.

Much like Brazilian Cherry, Amendoim has a reddish hue, but it has a more golden cast, particularly the sapwood. Amendoim Hardwood Floors have more swirls and rings than seen with Brazilian Cherry, but much like its sister specie, its soft brush strokes look as though they were painted on with watercolor. It will darken with sunlight, also like Brazilian Cherry Hardwood Floors, but it’s a much more subtle difference.

Also like Brazilian Cherry and other exotics, Amendoim is very, very strong, showing top ratings on the Janka hardness scale – 1912, which is above maple and red oak, and equivalent to Santos Mahogany. Brazilian Walnut is considered the strongest at 3680.

Amedoim is available in both solid and engineered hardwoods, with some engineered collections offering very inexpensive options. Engineered products range from $2.89 per square foot to $6.69 depending on the finish, distressing techniques, plank width, and thickness.

You can find solid Amendoim floors ranging from $4.09 per square foot for smaller spaces up to $7.70 for 5 ½ inch wide planks, which are typically the best sellers in all wood flooring products.

Price-wise, Amendoim is somewhat similar to Brazilian Cherry, perhaps a little more expensive, but much of that depends on what you’re looking to do. Handscraped floors will cost more than smoother finishes regardless of the specie. Brazilian Cherry seems to have more engineered options on the market with cheaper prices, but if you’re set on something solid, Amendoim is cheaper.

If you’re still exploring your options for a floor, have a free hardwood floor sample sent to your home so you can actually see the product and cut of the wood. This is particularly important with Amendoim because you could either be getting the tan sapwood or the reddish heartwood. Some cuts have lots of swirls and others don’t. You just want to be sure that you’re getting what you pay for.

A reputable exotic flooring retailer can walk you through the selection process and help you figure out if Amendoim is right for your home.

Source by Laine McKenna

As 2010 winds down, homeowners are allocating budget for home decorating in the upcoming calendar year, and that means expects are already giving their two cents on trends to look out for.

Many experts in home decor say that paint will play a big role in home decorating, with the biggest change happening in how we define a “neutral” color palette. Previously, light browns and beige hues were thought to be the only neutral colors on the color wheel. Now decorators say that colors like mint green, light lavender, light yellow, and even peach are making their way into the “neutral zone.”

You can find the mint greens and light lavenders anywhere from kitchen walls to living room furniture. The key is to pair these light colors with a darker, more traditional hardwood floor.

Oak hardwood floors will continue to be all the rage because they are seen as timeless and can be molded to work with a variety of design schemes. Homeowners can install an oak hardwood floor and five years down the road, redecorate their homes without needed to touch the wood.

As for the color of floors, stick to a color like Bruce Hardwood’s Saddle Summit or Bruce’s Vintage Brown Liberty. For dark oak flooring, go for Mullican’s Oak Dark Chocolate, which works exceptionally well with not just light colors, but also bright coral or red-colored walls.

Bright colors are another trend for 2011. With the economy still suffering, people are relying on youthful, bright colors to cheer up their homes, and their moods. Experts say intense turquoise and vivid greens can play up a dull and dreary looking room. The key is to keep it simple and use neutral colors to balance these bright hues out. White furniture and curtains would certainly do the trick.

When it comes to the hardwood finishes of the season, let the design of the room dictate the direction you’re going in. If you are thinking modern, then a satiny finish will be perfect. If you want to go classic or vintage, then you should look into handscraped.

Source by Laine McKenna

Going to a new dentist can be nerve wracking. Knowing what to expect is an important tool in easing your nerves, asking the right questions can go a long way in helping you be comfortable at the dentist’s office. When visiting a new dentist, it’s important to know the right questions to ask in order to ensure that you’re getting the proper care and that they offer the services and products you need. Here are the questions you should ask your new dentist:

How much experience do you have and how long have you been at this location?

Convenience is an important thing to consider when looking for a new dentist. Most people are already trying to find reasons to skip out on the dentist and if it is not centrally located, this will give people the incentive they need to skip their dentist appointment. In addition to location, it’s important to know about the experience of the dentist. Just because your dentist is young and lacks experience doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t go to him, but it’s important to know what you’re getting into and to feel comfortable with your dentist’s level of experience.

Do you have any areas of expertise outside of general practice?

Find out what your dentist’s specialties are, if he has any. This is vital information because if you need a particular service down the road, you want to know if your dentist is expressly trained in the procedure. If he is not, then you may want to consider having him refer you to somebody who is.

What kind of continual education do you and your practice participate in?

Technology is advancing at an ever-increasing speed, in order to keep up with these trends dentists must go through continuing education and training. State licensing requires dentists to go through a minimum of continual education. Dentists can choose to participate in more than the required amount, ask your dentist what kind of continual training do the dentist and his staff participate in.

Do you accept my insurance?

Ideally, this would have been asked before your first visit but it’s important to make sure your dentist accepts your insurance. Even if you have one of the big name insurances, don’t just assume that a dentist will accept your insurance. Each dentist’s office is different and you should always make sure that yours is accepted. This is an expensive mistake that you don’t want to learn about the hard way.

Going to a new dentist can be an uncomfortable experience but it doesn’t have to be that way. By doing proper research before going to a new dentist, you can be more confident in your decision. By asking the right questions when you do go in for your visit, you can ensure that you will be comfortable with your dentist for a long time to come. By following the advice in this column, you can be sure that you’re getting the necessary information to keep you educated and comfortable with your dentist.

Source by Kent Bladen

If you have to use dentures for normal eating and everyday wear, you certainly know how much of a headache they can be. Slipping, grating, or irritating dentures can easily cause jaw pain and run the risk of infections. Dentures require frequent cleaning beyond normal brushing in order to retain their color, durability, and function. What is worst is how expensive the process can be if your dentures have fractured and new casts must be ordered. In many cases, dentures are such a frustration that it is a much better decision to do away with them altogether and pick up a new medical alternative to traditional dental substitutions. One day dental implants can be the key to a new, healthy mouth of teeth and a hassle-free approach to all eating or chewing problems that dentures cause.

Nearly all denture users report some semblance of pain or irritation with their products. This is because dentures are not naturally balanced and structured like naturally forming teeth, so that their usage does not exactly follow like normal. First-time users of dentures particularly are vulnerable to extreme grinding on soft, newly exposed gums. Most denture adhesives are difficult and unpleasant to use, some will not last through the entire duration of a day, while still others form nasty-tasting chemical reactions with the bacteria in your mouth. Sadly, denture technology has come to an impasse — the difficulty in preparing a proper fit with sealed edges and no loose parts lies in the cost. Form fitting dentures are available for purchase, but can cost several times more than their basic counterparts can, certainly a hard decision for seniors living on a fixed income.

More than mere discomfort, however, can be serious pain. If the gums are too weak or poorly cleaned, the surface of the skin is prone to breaking and bleeding. In other cases, sores may grow that are extraordinarily painful to the touch and take days, perhaps even weeks, to vanish. The worst dangers of all, however, are infections that can sprout if the dentures have lodged particles underneath your mouth, most of the time, pain results from an imbalance in the ridges of the mouth. The complexities of bones and jaw muscles create a wavy, shifting map that a set of dentures will have difficulty settling upon. Jaw ridges are not uniform in any patients, so that no two people can wear the same set of dentures without a bit of slipping. Properly modified dentures can adjust and settle into jaw ridges, but very few patients have the finances or the time for a select model.

Luckily, an easy and fast solution is available to those who are tired of clunky, obsolete dentures. One day dental implants are a new procedure available at your family dentist. The field of cosmetic orthodontic surgery has advanced by leaps and bounds since the advent of computer programs that can map out a new set of artificial teeth. Unlike simple dentures, these dental implants are directly screwed into the jaw, making it impossible for new teeth to slide about and create sores.

One day dental implants are just that: you can walk into your dentist’s office after the preliminary adjustments and walk out with a new, vibrant, form-fitting set of teeth. Your dentist can map out the advance of bone, so surgeons are capable of reducing areas that would push against the teeth and screws. In other words, there are no more hassles of having to replace, clean, or adjust dentures.

Source by Nilo Hernandez

Tonsil stones are small calcified pieces of material which can form in the three glandular structures which are inside of the mouth, the tonsils. A dental laser option made to address the problems people face when their tonsils develop these stones is available.

The tonsils are designed to collect toxins and filter material before it travels further down the throat. These organs can play significant roles in digestion and the processing of food if they eliminate unwanted material from traveling further down the esophagus.

When stones, also known as tonsilloliths, form within small pockets of these tonsils, the results can range from plain old disturbing and embarrassing to the painfully disturbing and uncomfortable. These symptoms include having consistently poor smelling breath, persistent feelings of discomfort where the stones have formed and, last but not least, dealing with reoccurring throat infections.

Several people have taken to removing the stones manually themselves, a procedure which can be daunting to attempt but seems to relieve the sufferers of discomfort for the moment. This relief is expected to last until the calcification begins to form again for reoccurring sufferers. In certain instances, people may have larger stones which still demand surgical intervention for removal and special cleaning in the areas in which these stone have formed. Parts of tissues which have a strong adherence to these stones may need to removed as well.

A dental laser treatment that resurfaces the appearance of the tonsils is a potential option for sufferers. By resurfacing the tonsil glands, the pockets in which calcification form can be reduced and evened out. The desired result is to ensure that tonsilloliths and the dramatic symptoms which occur as a result of the stones are a thing of the past.

While some people may rush to think of a tonsillectomy as the only treatment, multiple options exist, one of those being this less invasive dental laser resurfacing of the holes in which the tonsilloliths develop. Reconstruction of the area with a dental laser is known as laser cryptolysis. This procedure reduces the pockets so that manual removal is unnecessary.

With the dental laser resurfacing option, a local anesthetic is used. Once the areas have been cleaned and debris is removed a carbon dioxide laser can begin this work, eliminating the receptacles which have been one cause of the symptoms present in those with tonsilloliths.

There are multiple options for this condition. Some of these include methods which can be taken on by the average person in the mirror, some require an oral surgeon performing dental laser resurfacing, cryptolysis, on the area, or a removal of the tonsils entirely. And very likely, holistic health methods which reduce the onset of these holes exist as well. Knowing the options when it comes to persistent conditions of the throat and mouth may be the best start to making the right decision for your tonsilloliths.

Source by Al Tinas

One of the biggest responsibilities you have as a parent is choosing the right medical and dental care providers for your kids. While it may seem as if the easiest way to handle things is to pick the first professionals you run across, you owe your children more than that. You should take the time to screen different professionals until you find the right professionals to care for them. For example, a pediatric dentist is the best professional to care for your children’s teeth and gums.

It doesn’t matter how old your children are, as long as they are under the age of 19 (in some cases 21), they can benefit from being seen and treated by a pediatric dentist. This professional has undergone additional training so that they can provide the best quality dental care for children and young adults. It is important that you take your children to see this type of professional at least six months after they get their first tooth. Even if you haven’t taken them to this type of professional before, there is nothing wrong with doing so now. The sooner you take them to this professional, the easier it will be for you to prevent them from developing any anxieties and fears. Keep in mind that it is much easier to prevent issues and phobias than it is to try and dispel them later on; especially if it is from a care provider.

Finding a good pediatric dentist to care for your children’s teeth and gums throughout their childhood and teenage years is something that you take seriously. In order to improve your chances of finding the best professional, you may need to research and contact several professionals. Ask them if they are accepting new patients. Find out what type of dental care they provide to their patients. Find out what licenses and credentials they hold. Go online and verify their credentials and look for reviews, praises and complaints that may exist for these professionals. Depending on what your results are, you may need to also schedule an appointment with them, so you can better determine whether or not they will be the best candidate to care for your children’s oral health. Don’t assume that just because everything looks good on paper that any particular professional is a good fit. You need to go to their practice, inspect the facilities and meet with them and the other staff members. You need to make sure that your children are going to be cared for in an environment in which they feel calm, comfortable, safe and relaxed.

The more effort you put into choosing a good pediatric dentist for your kids, the better you will be able to instill in them the importance of practicing and keeping good dental hygiene. You are also instilling in them the importance of having regular checkups and treatments. By doing your part, you can provide them with the foundation they need to be responsible about their dental health.

Source by Aloysius Aucoin

The women’s suffrage movement began on both sides of the Atlantic with passion and grit. This revolution was the descendant of the Enlightenment ideas placed forth by philosophers during The Age of Reason. The idea of the suffrage movement was founded upon the concept that all human beings are created equal and are born with natural rights that they have a duty and an obligation to exercise. The Women’s Rights Movement was a struggle throughout because of the people in power who opposed it, but the movement was ultimately triumphant because of the men and women who fought devotedly for their beliefs. That fight for the vote now allows women today to freely practice a fundamental right. It took a hundred years for it to come to pass, beginning at the time of Mary Wollstonecraft and the Marquis de Condorcet. The law now permits women to practice the rights and responsibilities that come with citizenship.

The women’s suffrage movement became a struggle to achieve because of the people, who opposed the notion that women had a duty to stand up for their natural-born rights. The movement imposed the principles of equality, liberty, and political justice and these ideas were not advantageous to the people who had power in a divided society. The proletarians were the ones that supported women’s rights, but the prominent, affluent, and powerful were afraid to change a system that worked to their benefit. The socialist and feminist ideas were not appealing to the people who had positions in parliament or government. Henry James, a British politician made a speech in The House of Commons in 1871, that gave reasons to neglect and disregard social equality when it came to matters of the state. He warningly advised the House of the wrongdoings of the opposite sex, “… women would have to make judgments on the basis of information obtained second-hand, and not from practical experience?”

Henry James states that women do not have superior experience when it comes to having an opinion and deciding on political matters. James is part of a political system that gives him power and authority to converse to a group of prominent men and place substantial amount of influence on them. The socialist vision of equality cannot chime with men who wish to gain a higher social standing in a community. A year before this speech, in 1870, the husband of Emmeline Pankhurst, (a women who was the driving force behind the suffragettes) Dr. Richard Pankhurst, drafted the first bill that allowed women to get the right to vote known as the Women’s Disabilities Removal Bill which was later introduced in House of Commons. This proves that the ideas of Henry James are slowly beginning to deteriorate because men and women were on their way to persuading the government that women needed their natural rights. This can be compared to the Industrial Revolution and the dominance the factory owners had over their workers. The factory owners did not want to give up the power that they had over their laborers the way the people of Parliament wouldn’t want to believe that their power might be equal to that of a women’s.

Francesco Crispi, a liberal Italian politician believed that women must not have an opinion when it comes to political arrangements that are made by the government. Women are made for the well being of the man. Crispi regarded women as peacemakers that are made to calm a man after a tiresome and laborious day. In 1883, to the Italian Senate, Crispi authoritatively declared “… the day when women participate in public business, you will find war.” He believed that the suffrage movement would cause social and political disorders in society that would lead to an universal imbalance. He is considered a liberal but his ideas reflect on orthodox and traditional ways of thinking. This “liberal” Italian politician is ignorant of the ideas of the Enlightenment and has taken many steps back because of his ideals. The French philosopher Condorcet said, “Have they all not violated the principle of equality of rights in tranquility depriving one half of the human race of the right of taking part in the formation of laws by the exclusion of women from the rights of citizenship.” Francesco Crispi, the future Prime Minister of Italy, is known as the precursor of Benito Mussolini, a man who was against women’s rights. Crispi is also speaking to the Italian senate and wants to appeal to them, and so his ideas, like that of Henry James are directed to commanding men of government. Many Italian men might be against the concept of social equality of both genders. If involved in government, male authoritarians ascertain that women may neglect their household duties and the peace that they create for the man’s benefit and pleasure will slowly diminish.

Henry James and Francesco Crispi have similar ideologies to that of Count Reventlow. Count Reventlow, a Nazi politician spoke for the Prevention of the Emancipation of Women in 1912. The German man appreciates only a certain kind of women. Reventlow passionately stated to the crowd, “Women want to rule and we don’t want to let them. The German Empire was created with blood and iron. That was man’s work. If women helped… they stood behind their men in battle and fired them on to kill as many enemies as possible.” Count Reventlow believes that men have fought for their rights during wars, and he only appreciates the women who supported their men when they fought for their country, and he looks down on the women who fight for their individual rights. Women are meant to support men and are not meant to make decisions for the man. Reventlow, a German naval officer and Nazi politician enjoys both his national identity and his place in the social hierarchy. Since he is speaking to a group of people who are against the women’s suffrage movement, we can decipher that he is encouraging men & women of wealthy backgrounds who do not need to the right to vote to work against a proletarian cause. Rosa Luxemburg a German revolutionary socialist on the same year (1912), made a speech concerning Women’s Suffrage and Class Struggle.

“In truth, our state is interested in keeping the vote from working women and from them alone. It rightly fears they will threaten the traditional institutions of class rule, for instance militarism (of which no thinking proletarian woman can help being a deadly enemy), monarchy, the systematic robbery of duties and taxes on groceries, etc. Women’s suffrage is a horror and abomination for the present capitalist state because behind it stand millions of women who would strengthen the enemy within, i.e., revolutionary Social Democracy.” Rosa Luxemburg has remembered the ideas of Condorcet and Wollstonecraft and through her words, like Count Reventlow, is trying to influence a specific group of people. Their ideas vary and are at opposite ends of the table. Luxemburg is moving forward with her ideas about equality in gender, and Reventlow makes a proposition to the people of authority to pause and realize that women do not deserve the rights that men have gained over time. However, Count Reventlow has forgotten the times when men and women (proletarians), together fought for individual rights like the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. In these cases, women did not only support the men, but were willing to fight along with them to gain the justice that they deserved.

Because of the rising importance of the suffrage movement, Reventlow wants men and women on his side. The ideas of the socialist women were growing stronger and the ideas of the prominent men were only addressed to the opulent. In 1919, a Speaker for the French Senatorial Commission concurred with the ideas of James, Crispi, and Reventlow, with a degrading and derogatory tone. “Rather than handling the ballot, the hands of women are meant to be kissed… ” The speaker is trying to say that women are given so much love and it is not necessary for them to acquire an unrealistic advantage when they already have been given much. Like the three men before him, this French man has acquired for himself a position of power and comfort in society. Like Count Reventlow, this French man is moving backwards. In the same year of this speech, the 19th Amendment of the US Constitution was submitted to the Congress for ratification. It said, “The United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex.” The world was moving forward in its ways and the French man maintains an archaic understanding of women. Although the speaker, in some ways praises the opposite sex, he negates the fact that their ideas would be necessary from a political standpoint.

However, when Mary Wollstonecraft wrote her Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) she vehemently ridiculed prevailing notions about women as helpless, charming, adornments in the household. Nevertheless, women themselves denied the fact that they should be give the right to vote. Mrs. Humphry Ward, a novelist and one of the founders of the Women’s National Anti-Suffrage League in 1889 announced candidly that women “contribute more precious elements to national life” and that women have “peculiar excellencies”. Mrs. Humphry Ward believes that childbearing and household work are the only duties of the female. She takes her husband’s name and thinks she is meant to be represented by her husband. She has confidence in the idea that the wife is meant to be the husband’s environment of tranquility, and not a political advisor who neglects the duties she was born with.

Ultimately, it can be deduced that the opposing parties of the Women’s Suffrage Movement were affluent and content men and women who were against viewing equality between both the sexes as an essential liberty. They believed that women belonged to their husbands; they were homemakers and peacemakers, and fighting for an individualistic cause would create and imbalance in society. They firmly believed that if given the vote, women would be incapable to make political and social decisions.

The women’s suffrage movement became a successful enterprise primarily because of the men & women who passionately fought for their beliefs. Many of the paramount women who fought for their beliefs of equality were born into the Pankhurst Family. The Pankhurst Family devotedly fought for their natural rights and the phrase “Deeds not Words”. Emmeline (the mother), Christabel, and Sylvia Pankhurst formed the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903. The WSPU was one of the most militant organizations that advocated “Deeds not words”. Emmeline Pankhurst stopped believing that moderate speeches was the way to achieve the vote and this later allowed them to violently protest against the unfair persecutions of the women’s suffrage movement.

The Pankhurst’s were arrested and jailed several times, went on hunger strikes and were brutally force-fed. These women debunked an archaic understanding of the oppression of women. They taught the working class woman to fend for themselves and they moved forward from tradition and an orthodox way of life. Another feminist would also agree with the actions of the Pankhurst women. Emily Wilding Davison became a martyr for the suffragette movement at the Epsom Derby. Davison joined the WSPU, and she, like the Pankhurst’s, fought militantly to achieve women’s suffrage and dedicated themselves towards the movement. She was also imprisoned many times, went on hunger strikes, and was force-fed. At the Epsom Derby in 1913, Davison tried to pull down the King George V’s horse, was trampled by the horse and died four days later in the hospital. She was influenced by the movement to perform this act, and her martyrdom allowed the feminist effort to proceed faster into gaining the vote for women. The Pankhurst’s and Davison remembered the socialist ideas; they remembered when Karl Marx and Frederick Engels said, during the Industrial Revolution that, “ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions… The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains.” They also remembered Samuel Smiles ideas of working hard to reach a higher destination in the ladder of success. He theorized, “Such reforms can only be effected by means of individual action, economy, self-denial.” Most importantly, they remembered John Locke, and his Enlightenment ideas when he said, “bad laws need not be obeyed.”

Clara Zetkin, a German socialist leader, reiterated the points that the Pankhurst family made. Zetkin gave women a desire to break away from male supremacy and said that a woman’s life was not limited to the confines of her home, but her ideas must be placed in government and other social aspects of life. She ardently said in 1907, “We socialists do not only demand women’s suffrage as a natural right with which women are born; we demand it as a social right.” She would disregard and oppose the ideas of her fellow German, Count Reventlow, and agree with the ideas of Rosa Luxemburg. Zetkin is yearning for equal opportunities for women like Anna Mozzoni, an Italian Feminist. In 1871, Mozzoni aggressively introduces the oppression of women by saying, “The woman question affirms more profoundly the roots of democracy, discredits the rule of force, advances women in the economic sphere, and weakens the power of traditional prejudices.” Mozzoni would say that giving women the right to vote would be for the betterment of society and will not lead to an unrealistic downfall; by doing this women can truly progress in society. She has a different view from that of Mrs. Humphrey Ward and the prominent men who believed in the same things Mrs. Ward believed in. Zetkin and Mozzoni are fighting for their voices to be heard, just the way the Pankhurst family militantly fought. In 1879 Mozzoni published her translation from English into Italian of On the Subjection of Women by John Stuart Mill.

John Stuart Mill was one of the first voices who were for the enfranchisement of women. Mill stated that society and its perception of gender must be reconstructed so that all humans, not one-half of them should be able to be considered as equals and have the same rights. Mill’s ethical system of Utilitarianism (greatest good for the greatest number) defended the emancipation of women. In his essay, he strongly describes why women are to be raised on a platform equal to that of men. “The moral regeneration of mankind will only really commence when the family is placed under the rule of equal justice, and when human beings begin to cultivate their strongest sympathy with those who are equal in rights.” His wife, Harriet Taylor Mill, who co-wrote The Subjection of Women, reiterated her husband’s ideas in her own essay. She wrote The Enfranchisement of Women and obviously stated that “Women have as good a claim as men have, in point of personal right, to the suffrage, or to any place in the jury-box, it would be difficult for any one to deny.” The visions of John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill contradict the ideologies of Mrs. Humphry Ward and Francesco Crispi. The belief that all women are placed in this world merely for the purpose of bearing children, and for the sole benefit of the man was discredited by the earnest people who believed that women’s rights were essential.

In 1920, the 19th Amendment of the US Constitution was passed and in 1928, three months before the death of Emmeline Pankhurst, English women got their right to vote. Women wanted a voice in the government and wished to overthrow the male dominance that was prevalent in society. The work of the suffragettes proved that women are citizens, and they accomplished the visions of Wollstonecraft & Condorcet who said that it was an insult to deny one-half of the population the rights and opportunities that were given to the other half. The suppression of women in society was beginning to end and the movement allowed women to achieve a right that was denied of them for years.

“Bad laws need not be obeyed.” John Locke justified the French Revolution with this statement. The woman’s suffrage movement was a visionary creation, which has now become a part of history. The people with power & wealth were obstacles that were jumped through by the supporters of the movement. The fight was ambitious and aggressive in the eyes of the opposition, but to the suffragettes, was a symbol of natural and social rights. It insisted that woman must be an absolute equal in the sight of men. The advocates for the cause of woman, ultimately shattered the views of the opposition to become a successful and triumphant enterprise that eventually lead to a fundamental change in government and society.

Source by Kirsten Ebenezer

Buffalo Turf Grass (also known as St Augustine grass in North America) is a warm season turf grass made very popular in Australia with the relatively new soft leaf Buffalo varieties such as Shademaster (in the 1980s) and Sir Walter Buffalo (in the 1990s). Just for a quick categorization: There are two (2) types of grasses, that is, cool season grasses and warm season turf grasses.

In the cool season grasses we commonly have rye and fescue grasses.

With the warm season grasses there are many including the different soft leaf Buffalo (St Augustine) grasses, Queensland Blue Couch (this is a totally different grass to your garden variety Green Couch turf grass), Couch / Green Couch (also known as Bermuda grass in North America), Kikuyu Turf, Zoysia and so on.

Buffalo and Queensland Blue Couch differ from all the other Warm Season Grasses in that they are built only with above ground runners known as Stolons. On the other hand, green couch, kikuyu and zoysia grasses are built with both above ground runners (Stolons) and below ground runners (Rhizomes).

Originally, Buffalo grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) was the old hard leaf variety. Back then, it was the only Buffalo variety available. However, since the 1970s, turf farmers have created more desirable Buffalo turf grasses. These varieties including Sir Walter (which is the best Australian bred Buffalo) have a softer leaf and are more tolerant of shade than the other turf grasses.

In our experience as Lawn Care contractors, we believe Sir Walter Buffalo stands “head and shoulders” above all the other Buffalo varieties due to its tolerance of herbicide sprays and its superior green colour in Winter.

When spraying for broadleaf weeds (including clover, bindii, dandelions, etc) in Buffalo turf you need to use the selective herbicide with the main Active Constituents being 200g/L Bromoxynil and 200g/L MCPA.

The Australian retail products for this selective herbicide include Chemspray’s Bin-Die and Searle’s Buffalo Master Selective Herbicide. If you are looking for a product similar to these you need to compare them based on the Active Constituents of the product. You will notice that the labels of these products will say they are not suitable for use on the ST buffalo varieties including ST26, ST85 and ST91 buffalo. Certainly, you need to exercise caution when dealing with these varieties.

Any selective herbicides (suitable for turf grasses) which contain Dicamba as part of the Active Constituent should not be used on Buffalo Turf. Buffalo Turf suffers from bad leaf burn to death if sprayed with Dicamba based herbicides.

Augustine-Lawn&id=4935375″>Source by Gerry Faehrmann

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